Biography in English

Chang Chih-chiang T. Tzu-min H. Tzu-chiang West. Paul C. C. Chiang Chang Chih-chiang (1882- ? ) was a military officer associated with Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) for many years prior to 1927.

A native of Chihli (Hopei) province, Chang Chih-chiang was born into a landlord family in the Yenshan district. Since his father was the village elder, the young Chang received a classical education and became a candidate for the degree of sheng-yuan. In 1903 the Ch'ing government, then beginning to build a modern army, introduced a system of conscription. Chang's father was required to produce two recruits from his village. Unable to meet the demand otherwise, he sent his son as one of the recruits. Since it was rare for a Chinese soldier of that period to be able to read and write, Chang Chih-chiang's education impressed his officers, and he gained rapid promotion. In 1907, when Hsu Shih-ch'ang (q.v.) was appointed to the new post of governor general of the Three Eastern Provinces, he transferred a portion of the Chihli army to that area. The 1st Mixed Brigade was sent for garrison duty at Hsin-min-fu, and Chang Chih-chiang was then a platoon leader in the cavalry battalion of that brigade. He soon joined an organization known as the society for military studies, sponsored by Feng Yü-hsiang and others, and came into contact with officers who were anti-Manchu. In 1910 the 1st Mixed Brigade was merged with two other regiments to form the 20th Division, commanded by Chang Shao-tseng. Since he was sympathetic toward new ideas, he encouraged the spread of republicanism among his forces.

When the Wuhan revolt of October 1911 broke out, the society for military studies, led by Feng Yü-hsiang and Wang Chin-ming, planned to launch an anti-Manchu military uprising at Luan-chou. Chang Chih-chiang made a trip to Shanghai to contact the republican revolutionary leader Ch'en Ch'i-mei (q.v.). When the planned uprising failed, both Feng and Chang were forced to flee.

After the republic was formed in 1912, Chang Shao-tseng became military governor of Shansi province, and Chang Chih-chiang joined him as a staff officer. Disagreements with Yen Hsi-shan (q.v.), however, soon led to Chang Shao-tseng's departure from Shansi. Chang Chih-chiang then joined Feng Yü-hsiang, now commander of the 16th Mixed Brigade. At the end of 1915, the 16th Mixed Brigade, then on duty in Szechwan, was ordered to resist the invasion of Ts'ai O (q.v.) and to assist Yuan Shih-k'ai's trusted military governor, Ch'en Yi. Feng and Chang Chih-chiang sympathized with Ts'ai O in his movement against Yuan and forced Ch'en Yi to declare Szechwan's independence on 22 May 1916. This action hastened the collapse of Yuan Shih-k'ai's regime.

While in Szechwan, Chang Chih-chiang was greatly impressed by the fact that the majority of Chinese Christians in the province supported the anti-monarchical cause with great enthusiasm. That situation led Chang to take up the study of Christianity. Chang's conversion to the Christian faith was a personal act taken earlier than, and independent of, the action taken by Feng Yü-hsiang, whose mass baptism of his troops later brought him the nickname of the "Christian General." Chang Chih-chiang then returned north with Feng's army, and he and Lu Chung-lin (q.v.) took charge of it during Feng's temporary absence. In July 1917 Chang Hsün (q.v.) attempted to restore the Manchu dynasty. Chang Chih-chiang called on Feng to return to his command, and, in coordination with Tuan Ch'i-jui (q.v.), the unit suppressed Chang Hsün's forces. In 1918 Feng's army was transferred to Ch'angte in western Hunan, where it was stationed from June 1918 until 1920. Chang Chih-chiang then commanded the 2nd Regiment of the brigade. In the spring of 1921 Feng's brigade was ordered to Shensi, where, after a successful action, it was expanded into the 1 1 th Division, in which Chang commanded the 22nd Brigade. In August 1921 Feng Yü-hsiang was named tuchun [military governor] of Shensi province.

In April 1922 the first war between the Fengtien and Chihli factions broke out. On orders from Feng Yü-hsiang, who was associated with the Chihli clique, Chang Chih-chiang led his 22nd Brigade to Chengchow to support the forces of Ts'ao K'un (q.v.), since the military governor of Honan at that time was secretly in league with Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), the Fengtien clique leader. As a result of that action Feng Yü-hsiang was appointed tuchun of Honan." He did not remain long in that position, however. At the end of October 1922 he was appointed inspector general of the Chinese army and ordered to Peking. His 1 1 th Division was expanded to five brigades, and Chang Chih-chiang was made commander of the 7th Mixed Brigade.

In the autumn of 1924 a new war developed between the Fengtien and Chihli factions. By that time the relations between Feng Yü-hsiang and Wu P'ei-fu (q.v.), the leading military figure of the Chihli clique, had worsened. When the conflict began, Wu P'ei-fu assigned Feng, as commander of the Third Army of the Chihli forces, to the Jehol front. Chang Chihchiang was commander of the First Route Army under Feng. Feng had for some time contemplated a coup. In a quick move taken while Wu P'ei-fu was engaged at Shanhaikuan, Feng led his forces back to Peking and occupied the capital on the night of 22 October 1924. Immediately after the coup, Feng reorganized his forces into the Kuominchun, or National Army, with himself as commander in chief. After heavy fighting, he routed the forces of Wu P'ei-fu by 3 November. The Kuominchun then consisted of three armies, with Feng Yü-hsiang concurrently commanding the First Army, which was the descendant of his original 11th Division. Chang Chih-chiang was then assigned to command a cavalry brigade in that army. Toward the end of 1924, Feng again retired and entrusted the command of the training of his forces to Chang Chih-chiang and Li Mingchung. Chang was then appointed by the Peking government as the tu-tung [military commander] of Chahar, and Li Ming-chung received a similar appointment in Suiyuan. Chang proceeded to Kalgan to take up his new responsibilities, and he exerted great effort to consolidate the region. Among other things, he sought to stabilize the currency, develop animal husbandry, improve communications, and provide public recreational facilities. In November 1925 Feng Yü-hsiang entered into a private agreement with the Fengtien general Kuo Sung-ling (q.v.), to overthrow Chang Tso-lin, his erstwhile ally against Ts'ao K'un and Wu P'ei-fu. Feng ordered Chang Chih-chiang to move with his army from Kalgan to attack Tientsin. After engaging in sharp fighting for over a month and after being reinforced by the army of Sung Che-yuan (q.v.) from Jehol, Chang finally defeated the Fengtien general Li Ching-lin and captured Tientsin. He then returned to Kalgan.

On 1 January 1926 Feng Yü-hsiang announced his resignation as northwest border defense commissioner and stated that he would soon go abroad. Chang Chih-chiang succeeded to that post. As hostilities continued, the Kuominchun, now the common target of both the Fengtien and Chihli forces, found its position in the Tientsin-Peking area untenable. Therefore, Feng's forces retreated along the Peking- Suiyuan rail line to the vicinity of Hankow. On 21 March 1926 Chang Chih-chiang issued a public statement in the name of the Kuominchün declaring that it would avoid civil war and devote all efforts to the development of northwest China, notably Chahar, Suiyuan, and Kansu. In May 1926 the Kuominchun was reorganized into seven armies, and Chang Chih-chiang became commander in chief. Since Chang was the northwest border defense commissioner, the army was first referred to in China as the Northwest Army. Chang Chihchiang was then subordinate only to Feng Yühsiang in the hierarchy of the Northwest Army.

In August 1926 Feng Yü-hsiang returned from the Soviet Union to northwest China. He found his army battered and disorganized as a result of defeats suffered during his absence. Feng then resumed the over-all command of the Northwest Army. Chang Chih-chiang continued to serve in the post of northwest border defense commissioner.

Feng Yü-hsiang's decision to cooperate with Chiang Kai-shek struck a death blow to the Wuhan faction of the Kuomintang and to the Soviet advisers in China. In December 1927 Chang Chih-chiang represented Feng Yühsiang at the fourth plenum of the second Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, which met at Nanking. Chang then took up residence at Nanking, having been elected to membership on the State Council of the National Government. During the second stage of the Northern Expedition, he served as chief of the senior staff corps, acting as chief liaison officer between Feng and Chiang Kai-shek. After 1928 Chang Chih-chiang retired from active military and political affairs. Long interested in the traditional Chinese forms of physical exercise, he was made a director of the national traditional sports institute at its inauguration in April 1928. In August 1929 he was named chairman of the national opium suppression commission. Appointed director of the central traditional physical culture institute in 1932, he traveled abroad in 1935 to investigate physical culture activities in other countries. During the Sino-Japanese war, Chang moved to Chungking and served as a member of the People's Political Council. In that forum he was noted for his vigorous advocacy of the traditional forms of physical exercise, a stand that he adhered to despite criticism from the press that he was behind the times.

Toward the end of 1945 Hsu Tao-lin, son of Hsu Shu-cheng (q.v.), resigned from his post in the Executive Yuan at Chungking to file a charge in the local court at Pei-p'ei, Szechwan, against Chang Chih-chiang for inciting the assassination of his father in December 1925. Chang published a formal announcement in the principal Chinese papers stating the facts of the incident to demonstrate that he had not been personally involved.

After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Chang Chih-chiang returned to Nanking and later went to Peiping. He remained there after the Central People's Government was established, but was politically inactive. A Hong Kong press report of April 1962 stated that in the course of an interview at Peking, Feng Hungkuo, the eldest son of Feng Yü-hsiang, had mentioned Chang Chih-chiang. Chang was reported to be living quietly in Peking at the age of 81 sui, still in good health.

Biography in Chinese

张之江 字:紫岷 号:子姜 西名:保罗

张之江(1882-? ) , 1927年前,一直是冯玉祥部下的军人。

张之江,河北人,生于盐山县的一个地主家庭。他父亲是村里的长老,张之 江幼读诗史,举为生员。1903年清朝办新式军队,实行征兵制,张的父亲需要 在村里征募两名新兵,因人数不足两人,他父亲就把张之江送去应征。当时当 兵的大都是文盲,张之江因读过诗书,所以为其上司赏识,提升很快。

1907年,徐世昌受命为东三省总督,调去了一部分直隶部队,其中第一混 成协守卫新民府。张之江那时是该协骑兵营排长,他参加了由冯玉祥等人创办 的讲武社而与部队中的反满军官有所接触。1910年第一混成协与另两个标合编成第二十镇,由张绍曾任统领,他亦同情新思想,赞同在他部队中传布共和思 想。

1911年10月武汉起义,冯玉祥、王金铭领导的讲武社准备在滦州举行反满 武装起义。张之江去上海和共和革命领袖陈其美联系,起义计划失败,冯、张 被迫逃走。

1912年民国成立,张绍曾任山西督军,张之江前去当参谋。张绍曾因与阎 锡山不和,很快离开了山西,张之江投效第十六混成旅旅长冯玉祥。1915年 底,十六混成旅在四川驻防,受命抗击蔡锷入侵,协助袁世凯所委任的督军陈 宦。冯、张同情蔡锷的反袁运动,1916年5月22日,逼陈宦宣布四川独立,此 举加速了袁世凯政权的崩溃。

张之江在四川时,对该省极大多数基督教徒热心反对帝制一事印象很深, 因此引起了他对基督教的注意。张皈依基督教在冯玉祥之先,与冯无关。冯玉 祥因为他为他的部队集体受洗礼而被称为“基督将军”。

张之江带了冯玉祥的部队回到北方,冯玉祥不在时,由他和鹿锺麟负责。 1917年7月张勋复辟,张请冯玉祥回来指挥部队,并与段祺瑞合作击败张勋的 武装。1918年冯军调往湘西常德,从1918年6月到1920年都驻守在那里。张之 江统率该旅第二团。1921年春,冯旅奉命去陕西,经不断努力,扩编为第十一 师,张统率第二十二旅。1921年8月,冯玉祥任陕西督军。

1922年4月,第一次直奉战争爆发。冯玉祥属于直方,他令张之江率第二 十二旅赴郑州支援曹锟部队。当时河南督军秘密和奉军首领张作霖联盟。张作 霖战败后,冯玉祥充任河南督军,但为期不长,1922年10月底他受命为陆军检 阅使而回北京。他的第十一师扩编为五个旅,张之江为第七混成旅旅长。

1924年秋,第二次直奉战争时,冯玉祥和直军首脑吴佩孚关系恶化。战争 开始时,吴佩孚命令直军第三军军长冯玉祥去热河前线,张之江任冯部的第一 路军司令。冯考虑发动政变已有相当时间,趁吴佩孚去山海关之机,率部回 师,于1924年10月22日夜占领北京。事变后,冯立即改组其所部为国民军,自 任总司令。经苦战后,他在11月3日击退了吴佩孚。国民军下属三个军,冯兼 任第一军军长,第一军是他原第十一师的旧部,张之江统率该军骑兵旅。

1924年底,冯再次下野,把部队训练任务交给张之江和李鸣锺,当时他们 两人各由北京政府任命为察哈尔都统和绥远都统。张去张家口就任,大力巩固 地盘,稳定币制,发展畜牧业,改善交通事业和増设公共娱乐场所。

1925年11月,冯玉祥和奉军将领郭松龄秘密约定推翻他昔日共同反曹锟、 吴佩孚的盟友张作霖。冯令张之江率部由张家口出击天津,经过一个多月苦 战,又得到宋哲元部由热河赶来支援,终于打败了奉军将领李景林,攻占了天 津,然后张之江又回张家口。

1926年1月1日,冯玉祥宣布辞去西北边防督办,准备出国,由张之江继 任自己的职务。敌对的冲突继续发展,当时冯玉祥的国民军成了直系、奉系两 军共同打击的对象,国民军发觉自己在京津地区难以防守。冯玉祥的部臥由京 绥路转移到南口一带。1926年8月21日,张之江以国民军名义发布公告,宣称 避免内战,致力于开发西北,特别是察绥甘三省。1926年5月,国民军改编成 为七个军,张之江为总司令,因张之江系西北边防督办,所以这一支军队在国 内又称为西北军。在西北军这个集团内,张之江只服从冯玉祥。

1926年8月,冯玉祥由苏联回国到西北。冯玉祥感到他的部队在他离国时 因多次失败而混乱散漫,于是他又对西北军进行全面领导,张之江仍为西北边 防督办。

冯玉祥决定和蒋介石合作,这对国民党中的武汉派和苏联顾问是一个致命 打击。1927年12月,张之江代表冯玉祥出席国民党在南京召开的二届中央执 行委员会第四次全体会议。此后,张之江留居南京,被举为国民政府政治会议 成员。北伐战争的第二个阶段中,他任参谋总长,并担任蒋、冯之间首席联络官。

1928年后,张之江退出军政界的活动,他嗜爱国术,1928年4月国术馆成 立,张任国术馆长。1929年8月,张任全国禁烟委员会主席。1932年他任国术 研究院院长,1935年出国考察外国体育事业。中日战争期间,他迁居重庆,任 国民参政会代表,在会上,他大谈其国术,舆论界批评他为落伍,他若无其 事。

1945年底,徐树铮的儿子徐道邻辞去行政院职务后,在重庆向四川北碚地方法院起诉,控告张之江于1925年12月曾唆使人刺杀他父亲。张之江在当时主 要报纸上登载正式声明,历述事件过程,声称他并不曾参与其事。1945年日本投降后,张之江先回南京,后又回北平。他住在北京直到中华 人民共和国中央人民政府成立,但他没有参加政治活动。1962年4月一家香港 报纸上曾报道说,记者在北京会见冯玉祥的长子冯洪国时,他曾提到张之江。 据说张之江八十一岁仍安安静静住在北京,而且身体很好。

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