Panchen Lama

Panchen Lama (1883-1 December 1937), earthly manifestation of the buddha Amitabha. When the thirteenth Dalai Lama (q.v.) was in exile (1904-9, 1910-12), the ninth Panchen was de facto ruler of Tibet. The Panchen was forced into exile by the Dalai in November 1923. The eighth Panchen Rimpoche [precious sage], the earthly manifestation of the buddha […]

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Zhang Jiasen

Chang Chia-sen 張嘉森 T. Chün-mai West. Carsun Chang Chang Chia-sen (1886-), known as Carsun Chang, a leading supporter of Liang Ch'ich'ao's ideas and movements, worked for the establishment of constitutional government in the early 1900's. Prominent in the attempt to focus attention in China on cultural and educational activities, he studied philosophy in Germany and […]

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Zhang Xun

Chang Hsün 張勳 T. Shao-hsuan 少軒 H. Sung-shou 松壽 Chang Hsün (14 December 1854-September 1923), military leader, is best known for his unsuccessful attempt to restore the Manchu dynasty in 1917. The family into which Chang Hsün was born had lived for generations in a small village near the district-city of Fenghsin, west of Nanchang […]

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Zhang Qihuang

Chang Ch'i-huang 張其鍠 T. Tzu-wu 子武 H. Wu-ching chü-shih 無(無)竟居士 Chang Ch'i-huang (7 May 1877-30 June 1927), began his career as an official in Hunan and became an adviser and secretary general to Wu P'ei-fu during the 1920's. For five generations before his birth, Chang Ch'i-huang's family had produced scholarofficials in imperial China. He was […]

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Zhang Zhijiang

Chang Chih-chiang T. Tzu-min H. Tzu-chiang West. Paul C. C. Chiang Chang Chih-chiang (1882- ? ) was a military officer associated with Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) for many years prior to 1927. A native of Chihli (Hopei) province, Chang Chih-chiang was born into a landlord family in the Yenshan district. Since his father was the village […]

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Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-liang 張學良 T. Han-ch'ing 漢卿 Chang Hsueh-liang (1898-), known as the Young Marshal, was the son of Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), from whom he inherited control of Manchuria in 1928. In 1936, Chang Hsueh-liang detained Chiang Kai-shek at Sian in an attempt to persuade the National Government to form a united front with the Chinese […]

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Zhou Ziqi

Chou Tzu-ch'i (1871-20 October 1932), government official, served Yuan Shih-k'ai's government as minister of finance. Because of his complicity in Yuan's monarchical plot, Chou was forced to live in Japan (1916-17) to avoid arrest. He later served as minister of finance (1920) and as acting premier (1922). Although his native place was Shanhsien, Shantung, Chou […]

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Zhou Zuoren

Chou Tso-jen Orig. Chou K'uei-shou T. Ch'i-ming H. Chih-t'ang Chou Tso-jen (1885-), essayist, scholar, and translator of Western works into pai-hua [the vernacular]. With his brother Lu Hsün (Chou Shu-jen, q.v.), he brought new prominence to the essay form in the 1920's and 1930's. Born in Shaohsing, Chekiang, Chou Tso-jen, like his two brothers, Lu […]

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Zhang Zuolin

Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 T. Yü-t'ing 雨亭 Chang Tso-lin (1873-June 1928), known as the Old Marshal, military leader who consolidated control of the Northeast. He began as the leader of a local army in Fengtien and rose to rule Manchuria as a virtually autonomous state from 1919 to his death. After 1924, Chang extended his control […]

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Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 Orig. Wang Chao-ming 汪兆銘 Wang Ching-wei (4 May 1883-10 November 1944), Kuomintang leader and intimate political associate of Sun Yat-sen. At the time of the Sino-Japanese war, after more than a decade of feuding with Chiang Kai-shek for top authority in the Kuomintang, Wang became head of a Japanese-sponsored regime established at […]

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