Qian Yongming

Ch'ien Yung-ming (1885-19 June 1958), financier, spent much of his career in the service of the Bank of Communications, of which he became chairman of the board of directors. After 1928 he held various economic posts in the National Government. He also rehabilitated the Chung-hsing Coal Mining Company, which became the second-largest colliery in China, […]

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Zhu Xizu

Chu Hsi-tsu (1879-5 July 1944), historian, taught at such universities as Peking (1913-26; 1928-30), Chung-shan (1931-33), and National Central (1934-44). After 1939 he served as executive secretary of the' Kuo-shih kuan [bureau of national history]. Little is known about Chu Hsi-tsu's childhood. His native place was Haiyen, Chekiang. After receiving his early education in the […]

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Zhang Xun

Chang Hsün 張勳 T. Shao-hsuan 少軒 H. Sung-shou 松壽 Chang Hsün (14 December 1854-September 1923), military leader, is best known for his unsuccessful attempt to restore the Manchu dynasty in 1917. The family into which Chang Hsün was born had lived for generations in a small village near the district-city of Fenghsin, west of Nanchang […]

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Zhang Qihuang

Chang Ch'i-huang 張其鍠 T. Tzu-wu 子武 H. Wu-ching chü-shih 無(無)竟居士 Chang Ch'i-huang (7 May 1877-30 June 1927), began his career as an official in Hunan and became an adviser and secretary general to Wu P'ei-fu during the 1920's. For five generations before his birth, Chang Ch'i-huang's family had produced scholarofficials in imperial China. He was […]

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Zhang Zhijiang

Chang Chih-chiang T. Tzu-min H. Tzu-chiang West. Paul C. C. Chiang Chang Chih-chiang (1882- ? ) was a military officer associated with Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) for many years prior to 1927. A native of Chihli (Hopei) province, Chang Chih-chiang was born into a landlord family in the Yenshan district. Since his father was the village […]

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Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-liang 張學良 T. Han-ch'ing 漢卿 Chang Hsueh-liang (1898-), known as the Young Marshal, was the son of Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), from whom he inherited control of Manchuria in 1928. In 1936, Chang Hsueh-liang detained Chiang Kai-shek at Sian in an attempt to persuade the National Government to form a united front with the Chinese […]

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Zhou Ziqi

Chou Tzu-ch'i (1871-20 October 1932), government official, served Yuan Shih-k'ai's government as minister of finance. Because of his complicity in Yuan's monarchical plot, Chou was forced to live in Japan (1916-17) to avoid arrest. He later served as minister of finance (1920) and as acting premier (1922). Although his native place was Shanhsien, Shantung, Chou […]

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Zhou Zuoren

Chou Tso-jen Orig. Chou K'uei-shou T. Ch'i-ming H. Chih-t'ang Chou Tso-jen (1885-), essayist, scholar, and translator of Western works into pai-hua [the vernacular]. With his brother Lu Hsün (Chou Shu-jen, q.v.), he brought new prominence to the essay form in the 1920's and 1930's. Born in Shaohsing, Chekiang, Chou Tso-jen, like his two brothers, Lu […]

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Zhao Ersun

Chao Erh-sun (7 July 1844-3 September 1927) served the Ch'ing government in such capacities as governor general of Szechwan and of the Three Eastern Provinces. After 1912 he was editor of the bureau of Ch'ing history, responsible for the compilation of the Ch'ing-shih kao [provisional history of the Ch'ing]. A native of T'iehling, Fengtien, Chao […]

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Zhang Zongchang

Chang Tsung-ch'ang T. Hsiao-k'un 7Jt «*fr Chang Tsung-ch'ang (1881-3 September 1932), military commander, served under Chang Tso-lin (q.v.) from 1922 to 1925. From 1925 to 1928 he was military governor of Shantung province. Born at Chuchiatsun, Yihsien, in Shantung province, Chang Tsung-ch'ang came from undistinguished stock. Both of his parents practiced trades which were socially […]

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