Bai Chongxi

Pai Ch'ung-hsi (1893-2 December 1966), general of the Kwangsi clique, which also included Li Tsung-jen and Huang Shao-hung. In 1946-48 he was minister of national defense in the National Government. At the end of 1949 he went to Taiwan, where he became vice director of the strategic advisory commission in the presidential office. The second […]

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Zhang Fakui

Chang Fa-k'uei 張發奎 T. Hsiang-hua 向華 Chang Fa-k'uei (1896-), a leading Cantonese military officer, commanded the 12th (Ironside) Division, later and better known as the Fourth Army. Although a sometime supporter of Wang Ching-wei who participated in several anti- Chiang Kai-shek movements, he was given important commands during the Sino-Japanese war. A native of Shihhsing […]

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Zhang Qihuang

Chang Ch'i-huang 張其鍠 T. Tzu-wu 子武 H. Wu-ching chü-shih 無(無)竟居士 Chang Ch'i-huang (7 May 1877-30 June 1927), began his career as an official in Hunan and became an adviser and secretary general to Wu P'ei-fu during the 1920's. For five generations before his birth, Chang Ch'i-huang's family had produced scholarofficials in imperial China. He was […]

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Zhang Zhijiang

Chang Chih-chiang T. Tzu-min H. Tzu-chiang West. Paul C. C. Chiang Chang Chih-chiang (1882- ? ) was a military officer associated with Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) for many years prior to 1927. A native of Chihli (Hopei) province, Chang Chih-chiang was born into a landlord family in the Yenshan district. Since his father was the village […]

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Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-liang 張學良 T. Han-ch'ing 漢卿 Chang Hsueh-liang (1898-), known as the Young Marshal, was the son of Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), from whom he inherited control of Manchuria in 1928. In 1936, Chang Hsueh-liang detained Chiang Kai-shek at Sian in an attempt to persuade the National Government to form a united front with the Chinese […]

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Zhu Peide

Chu P'ei-te (29 October 1888-17 February 1937), Nationalist military officer. He was commander of the Third Army during the Northern Expedition in 1926-27 and governor of Kiangsi in 1927-29. Later, he served as chief of general staff, director general of military training, and director of the administrative office of the Military Affairs Commission. Yenhsing hsien, […]

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Bai Yunti

Buyantai Chinese. Pai Yun-t'i 白雲梯 Chinese T. Chü-ch'uan 巨川 Buyantai (17 February 1894-), Mongol leader, an official of the Kuomintang, known in Chinese as Pai Yun-t'i. He gained note for his attempts to promote the Kuomintang nationalities program in Inner Mongolia. A Mongol of the Center Kharchin Banner of the Josuto League, Buyantai was born […]

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Zhang Zuolin

Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 T. Yü-t'ing 雨亭 Chang Tso-lin (1873-June 1928), known as the Old Marshal, military leader who consolidated control of the Northeast. He began as the leader of a local army in Fengtien and rose to rule Manchuria as a virtually autonomous state from 1919 to his death. After 1924, Chang extended his control […]

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Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 Orig. Wang Chao-ming 汪兆銘 Wang Ching-wei (4 May 1883-10 November 1944), Kuomintang leader and intimate political associate of Sun Yat-sen. At the time of the Sino-Japanese war, after more than a decade of feuding with Chiang Kai-shek for top authority in the Kuomintang, Wang became head of a Japanese-sponsored regime established at […]

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Sun Zhongshan

Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 Orig. Sun Wen 孫文 T. Ti-hsiang 帝象 H. Jih-hsin 日新 I-hsien 逸仙 Chung-shan 中山 Alias. Nakayama Sho (Chinese: Chungshan Ch'iao) 中山樵 Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866-12 March 1925), leader of the republican revolution and of the Kuomintang. The village of Ts'uiheng (Choyhung) in Hsiangshan hsien, Kwangtung, situated near the coast some 30 […]

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