Zou Lu

Tsou Lu (2 February 1884-13 February 1954), conservative Kuomintang leader who became chancellor of National Chung-shan University (1932-39) and leading authority on the 1911 revolution and the early history of the Kuomintang. A native of Tap'u, Kwangtung, Tsou Lu was born into a poor Hakka family. His father reportedly was a tailor and a peddler. […]

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Ai Qing

Chiang Hai-ch'eng ( 1910—), known as Ai Ch'ing, poet. As a prominent literary figure committed to the doctrines of Mao Tse-tung, he held official posts at Peking from 1949 to 1958, when he was censured as a rightist. Iwu, Chinhua hsien, Chekiang province, was the birthplace of Ai Ch'ing. His family owned much land in […]

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Zhang Jiasen

Chang Chia-sen 張嘉森 T. Chün-mai West. Carsun Chang Chang Chia-sen (1886-), known as Carsun Chang, a leading supporter of Liang Ch'ich'ao's ideas and movements, worked for the establishment of constitutional government in the early 1900's. Prominent in the attempt to focus attention in China on cultural and educational activities, he studied philosophy in Germany and […]

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Zhang Fakui

Chang Fa-k'uei 張發奎 T. Hsiang-hua 向華 Chang Fa-k'uei (1896-), a leading Cantonese military officer, commanded the 12th (Ironside) Division, later and better known as the Fourth Army. Although a sometime supporter of Wang Ching-wei who participated in several anti- Chiang Kai-shek movements, he was given important commands during the Sino-Japanese war. A native of Shihhsing […]

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Zhang Zhijiang

Chang Chih-chiang T. Tzu-min H. Tzu-chiang West. Paul C. C. Chiang Chang Chih-chiang (1882- ? ) was a military officer associated with Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) for many years prior to 1927. A native of Chihli (Hopei) province, Chang Chih-chiang was born into a landlord family in the Yenshan district. Since his father was the village […]

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Zhang Zuolin

Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 T. Yü-t'ing 雨亭 Chang Tso-lin (1873-June 1928), known as the Old Marshal, military leader who consolidated control of the Northeast. He began as the leader of a local army in Fengtien and rose to rule Manchuria as a virtually autonomous state from 1919 to his death. After 1924, Chang extended his control […]

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Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 Orig. Wang Chao-ming 汪兆銘 Wang Ching-wei (4 May 1883-10 November 1944), Kuomintang leader and intimate political associate of Sun Yat-sen. At the time of the Sino-Japanese war, after more than a decade of feuding with Chiang Kai-shek for top authority in the Kuomintang, Wang became head of a Japanese-sponsored regime established at […]

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