Zhang Qihuang

Name in Chinese
Name in Wade-Giles
Chang Ch'i-huang
Related People

Biography in English

Chang Ch'i-huang 張其鍠 T. Tzu-wu 子武 H. Wu-ching chü-shih 無(無)竟居士

Chang Ch'i-huang (7 May 1877-30 June 1927), began his career as an official in Hunan and became an adviser and secretary general to Wu P'ei-fu during the 1920's.

For five generations before his birth, Chang Ch'i-huang's family had produced scholarofficials in imperial China. He was a native of Kweilin, Kwangsi. His grandfather had held official positions in south China and attained some military prominence during the Taiping rebellion. His father was a chü-jen of 1862 and later served as magistrate of several hsien, including Nanhai (Namhoi) and Shunte (Shuntak) in Kwangtung. A precocious child, Chang Ch'i-huang began formal schooling at the age of six sui and at eighteen enrolled in the Kuang-ya Academy, a distinguished educational center established at Canton in 1887 by Chang Chih-tung (ECCP, I, 27-32). When his father died about 1896, Chang Ch'i-huang remained at Canton with his mother and a younger brother. Three years later Chang married a daughter of P'an P'ei-k'ai, an official in charge of frontier defense on the Kwangtung- Annam border, and gradually gained a knowledge of military affairs by assisting his father-in-law. In 1902 Chang returned to his native Kweilin to participate in the Kwangsi provincial examinations. He passed them in 1903 and the metropolitan examinations in 1904, the year before the abolition of the system.

On entering official life, Chang Ch'i-huang was appointed to serve in Hunan province: first, for a brief period, as acting magistrate of Lingling and later as magistrate of Chihchiang in western Hunan. He remained in Chihchiang until 1910 and established himself as an able administrator. Following the death of his first wife, Chang married Nieh Ch'i-te, a granddaughter of Tseng Kuo-fan (ECCP, II, 751-56). When his mother died in 1910, Chang returned to Kwangsi to observe the appropriate mourning period.

In 1911 the governor of Hunan recalled Chang and placed him in charge of military units stationed at Yungchow. When the revolution broke out in October of that year, T'an Yen-k'ai (q.v.) became military governor of Hunan. When a new provincial government was established in Hunan in 1912, T'an called on Chang to become commissioner of military affairs. Chang and T'an Yen-k'ai were old acquaintances—they had both passed the metropolitan examinations in the same year and were thus linked in the t'ung-nien relation, a close bond in imperial China. After Yuan Shih-k'ai dissolved the Parliament in Peking early in 1914, he called a conference to draft a revised constitution. Chang Ch'i-huang was selected to participate. However, when suggestions were made at the conference in 1915 to revive hereditary ranks, Chang, sensing a reactionary trend, left Peking and returned south. Soon thereafter Yuan Shih-k'ai launched his ill-fated monarchical movement.

A significant point in Chang Ch'i-huang's career was his first meeting with Wu P'ei-fu (q.v.) in 1918. In 1917 Chang Hsün (q.v.) attempted to restore the Manchu house to the throne in Peking. The coup, however, was a fiasco. Tuan Ch'i-jui (q.v.) emerged as the chief rescuer of the republic and, with increased power, again became premier and pressed forward with plans for the unification of China by military means. Early in 1918 Tuan sent an expeditionary force under Ts'ao K'un (q.v.) and Wu P'ei-fu to occupy Hunan. Wu P'eifu's army advanced into the province with little difficulty, but bogged down unexpectedly at Yungchow. There Chang Ch'i-huang, who was again in Hunan as assistant to T'an Yenk'ai, supervised the defense line. At that point Chang communicated with Wu P'ei-fu, stressing the advantages of reestablishing local peace for the good of the Chinese nation as a whole. Impressed with Chang's sensible opinions and dissatisfied with Tuan Ch'i-jui, Wu P'ei-fu decided to stop fighting in Hunan. Shortly thereafter Wu took the lead by sending a telegram advocating general peace (21 August 1918) from Hengyang to the Peking government. Some sources suggest that Chang Ch'i-huang actually drafted this message. Whatever its authorship, the telegram contributed to the resignation of Tuan Ch'i-jui as premier in Peking.

Internecine fighting in north China persisted, however, and Chang Ch'i-huang continued to be active, now as adviser to Wu P'ei-fu, in both the Chihli-Anhwei war of 1920 and the first Chihli-Fengtien war of 1922. Chang and Wu became good friends; one key to the affinity between them may have been their mutual interest in and practice of divination and fortune-telling.

When the first Chihli-Fengtien war ended, Chang was appointed civil governor of his native province, Kwangsi. During the early years of the republic, the southern provinces of Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Kweichow, Yunnan, and Szechwan were largely controlled by local military leaders. Officials appointed by the Peking government had very limited authority in these areas. The extent of Chang Ch'ihuang's jurisdiction was a few hsien near Yungning, then the provincial capital of Kwangsi. While Chang had no hold on provincial revenue, he managed to remain in his position for about two years—until the arrival of Li Tsung-jen (q.v.) in 1924.

Meanwhile the second Chihli-Fengtien conflict was brewing in the north, and war was declared by Chang Tso-lin (q.v.) in September 1924. Wu P'ei-fu, then at Loyang in Honan, sent for Chang Ch'i-huang to serve again as his assistant. In this military conflict, however, Wu P'ei-fu emerged the vanquished, and from then on he steadily lost strength. In the south, the revitalized Kuomintang was beginning to consolidate a military base in Kwangtung. In the north, Feng Yü-hsiang (q.v.) turned against Wu P'ei-fu in 1924 and against Chang Tso-lin in 1925. Wu P'ei-fu and Chang Tso-lin then attempted to form an anti-Feng alliance, and Chang Ch'i-huang, as Wu's personal representative in Peking, played an important role in these negotiations between the warlords. After his defeat in 1924, Wu P'ei-fu moved from one area to another, unable to consolidate a secure territorial base. Chang Ch'i-huang remained in his service during this period. In 1927 Wu decided to retreat to Szechwan and moved his forces to the Honan-Hupeh border by summer. On 30 June, during the westward march, Chang Ch'i-huang was killed at Fanch'eng, shot by snipers who were variously described as bandits and as troops of an enemy faction. His remains were brought south and buried near Soochow in the winter of 1927. Chang Ch'i-huang was a versatile man. He dabbled in painting and played the ch'in, amused himself with the Chinese game of wei-ch'i, and had some knowledge of such diverse subjects as Chinese medicine and the English language. He was thought to be a good calligrapher and was regarded highly as a cultivated man of letters.

As a scholar, Chang Ch'i-huang was especially interested in ancient Chinese philosophy. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao (q.v.) praised Chang's work the Mo-ching t'ung-chieh [general interpretation of the philosophy of Mo-tzu], and in his preface to this study expressed amazement that Chang had been able to produce a work of this nature in the 1923-27 period when he had been occupied with military activities as Wu P'ei-fu's assistant. Both the Mo-ching t'ung-chieh and a collection of Chang's literary works, the Tu-chih-t'ang ts'ung-kao [miscellaneous writings of Tu chih-t'ang], were edited after Chang's death by Ch'ü Hsuan-ying, a relative by marriage. The former work was published in 1931; the latter, in 1932.

Biography in Chinese

张其锽 字,子武 号:无竞居士

张其锽(1877, 5, 7—1927, 6, 30),起先在湖南当官,二十年代曾 充当吴佩孚的顾问和秘书长。

在他出生前的五代之内,他的家族里颇有一些有学问的官吏。他原籍广西 桂林,祖父在南方做官,太平天国叛乱时立有军功。他父亲在1862年中举,以 后在广东南海、顺德等县做县令。张其锽童年时智力过人,六岁就正式上学, 十八岁入张之洞1887年在广州创办的著名教育中心广雅书院。1896年父亲去 世,张其锽同他母亲和幼弟留居广州,三年后和粤越边境守备潘培凯的女儿结 婚,因协助其岳父而对军事渐有所知。1902年回老家桂林参加广西省试,1903 年中试后又于1904年参加京试中式,那正是废除科举的前一年。

张其锽投身官场,先在湖南署理零陵知县,后为芷江知县直到1910年,以 办事练达著称。他的发妻死后,又和曾国藩的外孙女聂其德结婚。1910年母 死,回桂林居丧。

1911年湖南督军令张其锽率部驻永州。当年10月革命爆发,谭延闿任湖南 督军,1912年湖南新政府成立,谭邀张充当军务委员,他们原系故交,京试同 年中式,因此有同年之谊,这在清代时是很密切的关系。1914年袁世凯解散国 会,另召会议修订宪法,张其锽被举参加。1915年会议作出了恢复封爵的建 议,张其锽感觉到其中的反动趋向,离京回南。不久,袁世凯开始了不得善终 的帝制运动。

张其锽一生的关键是他在1918年与吴佩孚初次相会。1917年,张勋企图在 北京复辟清室帝制,但以惨败结局。当时段祺瑞以拯救民国的主将闻世,随着 他的权势增强,又成了内阁总理,并进一步准备以武力统一中国。 1918年初, 段祺瑞派兵由曹锟、吴佩孚率领进占湖南。吴佩孚部队开入湖南时颇为顺利, 但不料在永州被阻,那里有再次任谭延闿副手的张其锽守备。当时张其锽通知 吴佩孚说,为全国利益计,应重建地方和平。吴佩孚为张其锽的感人意见所动,同时又对段祺瑞不满,乃决定在湖南停战,并于1918年8月21日从衡阳领 衔通电北京政府倡导全面和平,据说电稿系张其锽所拟。不论电稿执笔是何人, 这个通电促使北京的段祺瑞辞去了内阁总理。

北方的混乱仍继续不断,张其锽当时以吴佩孚顾问的地位在1920年的直皖战争和1922年第一次直奉战争中继续活动。张、吴成为莫逆之交,其中一个主 要原因是他们对求神算命有共同的兴趣。

第一次直奉战争结束后,张任他的老家广西省省长。民国初年,南方粤、 桂、黔、滇、川诸省主要是控制在地方军阀手中。由北京任命的官吏在这些地区的权力极小。张其锽权力所及只是省会邕宁附近的几县而已。张不能掌握该 省财政收入,他设法在那里应付了两年,1924年李宗仁接任他的职位。

当时北方正在酝酿第二次直奉战争,1924年9月张作霖首先宣战,吴佩孚 在河南洛阳,又邀张其锽前去协助。但吴佩孚在这次战争中失败,从此以后他 开始失势了。在南方,复兴的国民党在广东巩固了军事据点。在北方,冯玉祥于1924年转而反对吴佩孚,1925年反张作霖。吴佩孚、张作霖准备组成反冯联 盟,吴佩孚的私人代表张其锽在这些军阀的谈判中起了重要作用。吴佩孚自 1924年失败后,东奔西走,总不能巩固一块地盘,这一期间,张其锽仍为他效 力。1927年吴佩孚准备撤到四川去,那年夏天率部队到了豫鄂边境,部队在西 行途中,6月30日张其锽在樊城被刺,刺客有说是土匪,有说是敌对派系,传 说不一。张其锽的尸体运往南方,1927年冬在苏州附近安葬。

张其锽多才多艺,喜绘画,能弹筝,善围棋。他具有诸如中国医药和英语 等各种各样的知识,又是一个很好的书法家,被看作是文士中一个有修养的人。

他又是一个学者,特别注重古代中国哲学。梁启超很推崇他的《墨经通 释»,在序言中对张其锽于1923-27年在吴佩孚幕中协助军务的时候能有这样 的著述感到敬佩。他的《墨经通释》和文集《独志堂丛稿»,在他死后由他的 姻亲居善英编订,分别于1931年、1932年出版。

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