Bai Chongxi

Pai Ch'ung-hsi (1893-2 December 1966), general of the Kwangsi clique, which also included Li Tsung-jen and Huang Shao-hung. In 1946-48 he was minister of national defense in the National Government. At the end of 1949 he went to Taiwan, where he became vice director of the strategic advisory commission in the presidential office. The second […]

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Zhang Fakui

Chang Fa-k'uei 張發奎 T. Hsiang-hua 向華 Chang Fa-k'uei (1896-), a leading Cantonese military officer, commanded the 12th (Ironside) Division, later and better known as the Fourth Army. Although a sometime supporter of Wang Ching-wei who participated in several anti- Chiang Kai-shek movements, he was given important commands during the Sino-Japanese war. A native of Shihhsing […]

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Zhang Qihuang

Chang Ch'i-huang 張其鍠 T. Tzu-wu 子武 H. Wu-ching chü-shih 無(無)竟居士 Chang Ch'i-huang (7 May 1877-30 June 1927), began his career as an official in Hunan and became an adviser and secretary general to Wu P'ei-fu during the 1920's. For five generations before his birth, Chang Ch'i-huang's family had produced scholarofficials in imperial China. He was […]

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Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-liang 張學良 T. Han-ch'ing 漢卿 Chang Hsueh-liang (1898-), known as the Young Marshal, was the son of Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), from whom he inherited control of Manchuria in 1928. In 1936, Chang Hsueh-liang detained Chiang Kai-shek at Sian in an attempt to persuade the National Government to form a united front with the Chinese […]

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Zhou Zuoren

Chou Tso-jen Orig. Chou K'uei-shou T. Ch'i-ming H. Chih-t'ang Chou Tso-jen (1885-), essayist, scholar, and translator of Western works into pai-hua [the vernacular]. With his brother Lu Hsün (Chou Shu-jen, q.v.), he brought new prominence to the essay form in the 1920's and 1930's. Born in Shaohsing, Chekiang, Chou Tso-jen, like his two brothers, Lu […]

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Zhu Peide

Chu P'ei-te (29 October 1888-17 February 1937), Nationalist military officer. He was commander of the Third Army during the Northern Expedition in 1926-27 and governor of Kiangsi in 1927-29. Later, he served as chief of general staff, director general of military training, and director of the administrative office of the Military Affairs Commission. Yenhsing hsien, […]

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Zhang Zongchang

Chang Tsung-ch'ang T. Hsiao-k'un 7Jt «*fr Chang Tsung-ch'ang (1881-3 September 1932), military commander, served under Chang Tso-lin (q.v.) from 1922 to 1925. From 1925 to 1928 he was military governor of Shantung province. Born at Chuchiatsun, Yihsien, in Shantung province, Chang Tsung-ch'ang came from undistinguished stock. Both of his parents practiced trades which were socially […]

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Zhang Zhizhong

Chang Chih-chung (1891-), military commander and government official, Nationalist general and dean of the Central Military Academy, became governor of Hunan in 1937, but lost the position after the misjudged burning of Changsha. In 1940 he became secretary general of the San Min Chu I Youth Corps. From 1945-49 he was director of the Generalissimo's […]

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Xiao Focheng

Hsiao Fo-ch'eng ( 1 862-1 939) headed the T'ungmeng-hui branch in Siam, edited the Chinese edition of the Hua-hsien jih-pao [Sino-Siam daily], and worked to improve the lot of overseas Chinese. He was a leader of the 1931 secession movement at Canton. Bangkok, Siam, was the birthplace of Hsiao Fo-ch'eng. His family's native place was […]

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Xie Chi

Hsieh Ch'ih (18 January 1876-16 April 1939), anti-Manchu revolutionary and official in Sun Yat-sen's Canton government, was a member of the first Central Supervisory Committee of the Kuomintang. He became associated with the Western Hills faction of the Kuomintang and participated in the so-called enlarged conference movement of 1930. Born into a merchant family in […]

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