Biography in English

Pai Ch'ung-hsi (1893-2 December 1966), general of the Kwangsi clique, which also included Li Tsung-jen and Huang Shao-hung. In 1946-48 he was minister of national defense in the National Government. At the end of 1949 he went to Taiwan, where he became vice director of the strategic advisory commission in the presidential office.

The second of three sons, Pai Ch'ung-hsi was born into a Chinese Muslim family in Shanwei village, Linkuei hsien, Kwangsi. The Pai clan, whose members had been farmers for generations, was said to have come to Kwangsi from Szechwan many years before Pai Ch'ung-hsi's birth. After receiving a traditional primary education in the Chinese classics, Pai Ch'ung-hsi was sent to a modern school in the town of Huihsien. In 1906, at the age of 14 sui, he enrolled at the Kwangsi Army Primary School, where his schoolmates included Li Tsung-jen and Huang Shao-hung (qq.v.). He later withdrew from the academy at the request of his family and entered a civilian institution, the Kwangsi School of Law and Political Science. Late in 1911, after the Wuchang revolt and the declaration of independence in Kwangsi, he left school and joined the Students Army Dare-to-Die Corps, of which Huang Shao-hung was a squad commander. This unit marched northward to Wuchang, but arrived there too late to participate in the fighting. It then was transferred to Nanking and disbanded. The discharged student-soldiers entered the Nanking Enlistment Corps, and they later were transferred to the Second Military Preparatory School at Wuchang.

After being graduated in the winter of 1914, Pai Ch'ung-hsi and some of his classmates went to Peking and received six months of "pre-cadet training." In June 1915 Pai entered the third class of the Paoting Military Academy, where his classmates included Huang Shao-hung and Hsia Wei. Soon after graduation late in 1 9 1 6, he organized a group of 36 fellow graduates and petitioned the Peking government to accept their services in the frontier region of Sinkiang. Although the Peking government accepted his petition and gave him a commission, the project had to be abandoned in 1917.

Pai Ch'ung-hsi returned to Kwangsi as a probationary officer in the 1st Kwangsi Division. In the summer of 1917 the Kwangsi Model Battalion was established by the provincial government. Its commander was Ma Hsiaochün, a graduate of the Shikan Gakko [military academy] in Japan, and its officers included Pai Ch'ung-hsi, Huang Shao-hung, and Hsia Wei. The Model Battalion soon was ordered to Hunan to participate in the so-called constitution protection movement as a guard unit serving under T'an Hao-ming, tuchun [military governor] of Kwangsi and commander in chief of the Hunan-Kwangtung-Kwangsi Constitution-Protection Army. A machine-gun company was added to the Model Battalion, and Pai Ch'ung-hsi, Huang Shao-hung, and Hsia Wei all volunteered as deputy commanders. The three men received joint command of the company.

Early in the autumn of 1918 T'an Hao-ming, having been defeated by Wu P'ei-fu (q.v.), reorganized the Model Battalion. Pai Ch'unghsi and Huang Shao-hung each received command of a company. The Kwangsi forces returned home early in 1919, and the Model Battalion then saw a year of garrison service in western Kwangsi, where it proved effective in the so-called bandit-suppression campaigns. That winter, Ma Hsiao-chim, because of his success in these campaigns, was given command of the Model Battalion, which then was ordered to Chaoch'ing in western Kwangtung to replace the local garrison force. Later in 1920 it marched eastward to garrison Canton on orders from Lu Jung-t'ing (q.v.). The Kwangsi troops were defeated in October by the Kwangtung Army of Ch'en Chiung-ming (q.v.) and were forced to retreat to Kwangsi along the northern bank of the West River. The Model Battalion, in cooperation with the forces of Li Tsung-jen, served as the rear guard.

After their return to Kwangsi, Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Huang Shao-hung followed Ma Hsiao-chim to Paise (Poseh) in February 1921. The war between Kwangtung and Kwangsi began again in June, and Kwangtung troops commanded by Ch'en Chiung-ming soon occupied Kwangsi. The Model Battalion endeavored to remain aloof from the conflict and to recruit men. Ma reorganized it as a five-battalion army, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi as commander of the 2nd Battalion. When the army was surrounded by Liu Jih-fu's Kwangsi Antonomous Army, Pai escaped with some of his men. After he had recruited new troops, Ma appointed him commander of the 2nd Regiment. Liu Jih-fu's force was defeated by the Kwangtung Army later in 1921, and Ma and his men then returned to Paise. About this time, Pai fell from a cliff during a night inspection tour and suffered a broken leg and other injuries. He gave command of his regiment to Huang Shao-hung and went to Canton for medical treatment.

Pai Ch'ung-hsi arrived in Canton in the summer of 1922. After Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton in February 1923, he asked Pai to return to Kwangsi and persuade Huang Shaohung to accept appointment as commander in chief of the Kwangsi Anti-Rebel Army. The purpose of the new force was to defeat Shen Hung-ying, under whom Huang then was serving at Wuchow. Huang seized Wuchow that autumn after Shen's expeditionary force hajd been defeated in Kwangtung. He then proceeded to organize the Kwangsi Anti-Rebel Army, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi as his chief of staff. The new force cooperated closely with Li Tsung-jen's Kwangsi Pacification Army at Yülin to defeat other forces in the province. After Lu Jung-t'ing and Shen Hung-ying began to vie for control of Kwangsi, Pai Ch'ung-hsi, Huang Shao-hung, and Li Tsung-jen decided to ally themselves with Shen. In June 1924 their forces took Xanning, and the following month the two armies were combined to form the Kwangsi Pacification Anti-Rebel Army, with Li as commander in chief, Huang as his deputy, and Pai as field commander and chief of staff. Lu Jung-t'ing's forces were defeated in September, and the Kwangsi Pacification Anti-Rebel Army was abolished on 1 December. Pai, Li, and Huang all joined the Kuomintang about this time. Li then became Kwangsi pacification commissioner and commander of the First Kwangsi Army, with Huang as deputy commissioner and commander of the Second Kwangsi Army, and Pai as chief of staff of the pacification commission and the Second Kwangsi Army. Early in 1925 these forces joined with the Kwangtung 1st Division, commanded by Li Chi-shen (q.v.), to drive Shen Hung-ying into Hunan. A short time later T'ang Chi-yao (q.v.), the military governor of Yunnan, tried to send troops through Kwangsi to Canton so that he could succeed Sun Yat-sen, who had died on 12 March. During the ensuing battles in northern Kwangsi, Pai Ch'ung-hsi participated in a general counteroffensive at Shap'u which ended in victory for his troops. T'ang's battered forces soon retreated from Kwangsi. Pai also helped in the suppression of Szechwan troops under Hsiung K'o-wu (q.v.) which had marched into Kwangtung. By this time, Pai's tactical abilities had won him the nickname Hsiao Chu-ko, signifying that he was deemed a worthy successor of the great military strategist of the Three Kingdoms period, Chu-ko Liang (181-234).

By the end of 1925 Kwangsi had come under the control of the three men who became known as the Kwangsi clique, and negotiations for closer cooperation between Kwangsi and Kwangtung had begun. In March 1926, after lengthy discussions, the Kwangsi forces were reorganized as the Seventh Army of the National Revolutionary Army, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi as chief of staff and commander of the 2nd Brigade, Li Tsung-jen as commander, and Huang Shaohung as party representative. Later that month, Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Ch'en Ming-shu (q.v.) were sent to Changsha to persuade T'ang Sheng-chih (q.v.) to ally himself with the Nationalists. Their success in winning T'ang's support enabled the National Revolutionary Army to make a decisive start on its move northward. After the Northern Expedition began, Pai served as deputy chief of staff of the National Revolutionary Army. In November 1926, after the Nationalist capture of Nanchang, he was given command of a pursuit force. He later served with Ho Ying-ch'in (q.v.) in the East River district of Kwangtung and participated in the overthrow of Chou Ying-jen, the military governor of Fukien.

Early in 1927 Pai Ch'ung-hsi was appointed field commander of the Eastern Route Army. After his forces captured Hangchow on 18 February and Shanghai on 22 March, he received the concurrent post of Woosung- Shanghai garrison commander. In April, he was given the authority to purge the Communists in Shanghai. On 12 April, he struck, disarming the volunteers of the Workers General Union, demolishing underground Communist organs, and ordering the execution of known Communists and other leftists. Thus the vigorous Communist movement in Shanghai was crushed. When Chiang Kai-shek established a national government at Nanking on 1 8 April in opposition to the government at Wuhan, Pai accepted an appointment from Chiang as acting commander of the Second Route Army. Pai participated in the capture of Hsuchow in June, moved into Shantung, and then pulled back to northern Kiangsu as military and political pressures mounted.

Chiang Kai-shek announced his retirement in the interest of party unity and went to Japan in August 1927. The headquarters of the commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army then was reorganized as the Military Affairs Commission, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi, Li Tsung-jen, and Ho Ying-ch'in constituting the standing committee. Late in August, the trio won a victory over Sun Ch'uan-fang (q.v.), whose troops had crossed the Yangtze at Lungt'ang in an attempt to recapture Nanking and Shanghai. On 15 September, the Central Special Committee was formed by the leaders of the Nanking, Wuhan, and Western Hills factions to serve as an interim government. T'ang Sheng-chih, then at Wuhan, objected to the reunification measures, and the authorities at Nanking launched a campaign against him in October, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi as field commander and Li Tsung-jen as commander in chief. Pai occupied Wuhan early in November, forcing T'ang into temporary retirement. Early in 1928 he extended his offensive into Hunan province in pursuit of T'ang's remaining troops. They soon surrendered, and in February 1928 they were combined with other forces to form the Fourth Group Army, with Li Tsungjen as commander in chief and Pai Ch'ung-hsi as his deputy. About this time, Pai also received command of the newly established Thirteenth Army, composed of troops from the Fourteenth Army and the 2nd Brigade of the Seventh Army. Pai participated in the drive on Peking in June 1928 which brought the Northern Expedition to completion. After Peking fell to the Nationalists, he was given command of a mixed force from the four group armies and was ordered to destroy the remnants of Northern forces inside the Great Wall. Having completed this task, he returned to the northern capital with his troops. He then became a member of the Peiping branch of the Political Council. At his own request, Pai Ch'ung-hsi then was sent to the northwestern frontier region at the head of troops from the Fourth Group Army. Early in 1929 the Kwangsi clique came into conflict with Chiang Kai-shek, who sent T'ang Sheng-chih to north China to recover control of the Hunan troops under Pai's command. T'ang's coup was successful, and Pai fled to Kwangsi. On 26 March, Li Tsung-jen and Pai Ch'ung-hsi were relieved of their official posts and denounced as plotters against the government; on 27 March, they were expelled from the Kuomintang. Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Huang Shao-hung launched an unsuccessful attack on Kwangtung, following which they were set upon by Liu Chien-hsu, who occupied Kweilin. The forces of Yü Tso-po, who had been appointed to succeed Huang as governor of Kwangsi, occupied Nanning on 27 June. Pai and Huang then went to Hong Kong, by way of Indo- China, to join Li Tsung-jen. In November, the three men returned to Kwangsi and established the Party-Protecting National Salvation Army at Nanning, with Li as commander in chief, Huang as deputy commander and governor of Kwangsi, and Pai as field commander. In January 1930 the Kwangsi forces and the Fourth Army of Chang Fa-k'uei (q.v.) made an attempt to capture Canton, but they soon were defeated and forced back to Kwangsi. In May, the four generals decided to support the northern coalition of Feng Yü-hsiang and Yen Hsi-shan (qq.v.) by invading Hunan and capturing Wuhan. This move ended in defeat at Hungchiao, and the remnants of the Kwangsi forces returned home to regroup. Huang Shao-hung, who opposed the policy of continuing the civil war, then broke with the Kwangsi clique. The arrest of Hu Han-min (q.v.) at Nanking on 28 February 1931 and the formation in May 1931 of an opposition government at Canton by such political leaders as Wang Ching-wei, Eugene Ch'en, and Ch'en Chi-t'ang (qq.v.) opened the way for a reconciliation of Kwangsi and Kwangtung. A military alliance was formed, and a joint Kwangsi-Kwangtung force moved to challenge the National Government by invading southern Hunan in early September. On 18 September, the Japanese attacked Mukden, and the National Government called for national unity. The Canton regime dissolved itself after gaining the release of Li Chi-shen and Hu Han-min and the temporary retirement of Chiang Kai-shek. In November, Pai Ch'ung-hsi was elected to the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. In April 1932 Li Tsung-jen was appointed pacification commissioner of Kwangsi, with Pai Ch'ung-hsi as deputy pacification commissioner. The two men then began the work of reconstructing Kwangsi by putting into practice the san-tzu cheng-ts'e [three-self policy] of selfgovernment, self-defense, and self-sufficiency and the san-yü cheng-ts'e [three-reservation policy] of building military power. The vehicle used to put these policies into effect was the min-t'uan system. In 1932 Pai Ch'ung-hsi was appointed commander in chief of the Kwangsi provincial militia and was placed in charge of the administration of the min-t'uan system throughout the province.

Min-t'uan was an old term which meant little more than "militia" until Pai Ch'ung-hsi put the new program into effect. The new system was built into the provincial political structure. In the early 1930's, the province of Kwangsi consisted of 94 (later 99) hsien, with a_total population of approximately 12,800,000. Each hsien was composed of ten ch'ü, which, in turn, consisted of about ten hsiang. The basic unit of political administration was the ts'un, of which there were ten in each hsiang. There were approximately 24,000 ts'un in Kwangsi.

According to the Kwangsi law of conscription, adopted in June 1933, every able-bodied male adult between the ages of 18 and 45 was subject to compulsory draft. Those who were not drafted were required to serve in the min-t'uan. Its basic unit was the squad, which contained nine to thirteen militiamen. Three or four squads constituted a platoon, of which there were several in each company. The chief of a ts'un held a concurrent appointment as commander of the company organized under his jurisdiction. Several companies constituted a battalion, with the chief of the hsiang as battalion commander. A column was composed ofseveral battalions, and the column commander was the chief of the ch'ü. In each hsien there was a min-t'uan headquarters, and the hsien magistrate served as commander of all the columns in his district. The district headquarters were organized into about a dozen divisional headquarters, each of which was headed by a professional soldier who held no civilian appointments. The divisional headquarters were under the over-all command of Pai Ch'ung-hsi.

Each militiaman had to undergo, in his leisure time, fundamental military training totaling 180 hours a year. According to Pai's personal estimate, all the able-bodied male adults in Kwangsi would be trained soldiers. In an emergency, an enormous army could be mobilized overnight, with the assistance of an efficient radio network throughout the province. The min-t'uan system also was interwoven with the provincial educational system. Because most of the militia commanders in the lower ranks were unpaid volunteers, they supported themselves by teaching in primary schools. Thus, a trained person appointed to a position in the min-t'uan had to perform a three-fold public duty: political administrator, military commander, and teacher. During large-scale public construction, min-t'uan commanders would serve as directors and foremen in a huge corvee labor system.

Under Pai Ch'ung-hsi's direction, the mint'uan system turned Kwangsi into a military polity which was relatively free from crime. At the same time, Kwangsi began to develop itself industrially and to undertake the construction of public works. These achievements helped to make Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Li Tsungjen nationally famous as capable administrators and efficient mass organizers.

In June 1936 Pai Ch'ung-hsi moved Kwangsi forces into southern Hunan and issued an order for the general mobilization of Kwangsi and Kwangtung forces. This order in part was an attempt to forestall the possibility of National Government action to end the semi-independence of Kwangtung following the death of Hu Han-min. However, the announced purpose of the mobilization was a northward march to protect China because Chiang Kai-shek was not resisting the Japanese. Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Li Tsung-jen became deputy commanders of the First Anti-Japanese National Salvation Forces, serving under Ch'en Chi-t'ang. The movement collapsed in early July after the Kwangtung air force defected to the National Government. On 25 July, the National Government appointed Pai Ch'ung-hsi governor of Chekiang, but he rejected the post as an attempt to remove him from Kwangsi. At the end of July 1936 Pai Ch'ung-hsi and Li Tsung-jen organized a military government in Kwangsi and appointed Li Chi-shen its chairman. Through mediation efforts of Huang Shao-hung and Ch'eng Ch'ien, however, the Kwangsi leaders resolved their differences with Chiang Kai-shek. Kwangsi then accepted the authority of the National Government, and the Kwangsi forces were reorganized as the Fifth Route Army, with Li Tsung-jen as commander in chief and Pai Ch'ung-hsi as deputy commander.

Soon after the Sino-Japanese war began in July 1937, Pai Ch'ung-hsi went to Kuling for a conference with Chiang Kai-shek. He then became deputy joint chief of staff in the Military Affairs Commission and a member of the National Aeronautical Council, in which posts he played a major role in the formulation of battle strategy for the Nanking-Shanghai area. He accompanied the National Government to the wartime capital of Chungking, where he continued to participate in strategy planning for such actions as the Taierhchuang campaign of 1938. On occasion, he was sent to help field commanders win their battles. He also helped organize the Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation (later the China Islamic Association), which helped mobilize the Muslims of China in support of the war, and he served as its president.

In November 1938 Pai was appointed director of the Kweilin field headquarters to unify the command of the three war zones south of the Yangtze. When Japanese troops landed at Kwangchouwan and invaded Kwangsi in 1939, Pai personally commanded the Chinese forces which fought the Japanese in the vicinity of the K'unlun pass. Because he failed to drive the Japanese back as ordered, he was recalled to Chungking, where he served until war's end as deputy joint chief of staff, director of the military training board, and chairman of the military inspection committee in the Military Affairs Commission.

With the creation of the ministry of national defense on 1 June 1946 to replace the ministry of war, Pai Ch'ung-hsi was appointed minister, with Ch'en Ch'eng as chief of general staff. In 1948 Pai also became director of the Strategic Advisory Commission. By this time, the Nationalist-Communist struggle for control of the mainland was reaching its height. Pai proposed that the Nationalist troops between the Yellow River and the Yangtze River be placed under a single commander. Chiang Kai-shek, however, decided that the area should be under two commanders—a commander in chief for bandit suppression in east China and another in central China at Wuhan. Pai was removed from office as minister of national defense and was transferred to the Wuhan post. As the Nationalist position in the Hsuchow sector deteriorated, Pai was called upon to reinforce it, but the request came too late. As the situation worsened, Pai in late December sent Chiang a series of telegrams advising negotiations with the Chinese Communists. Those telegrams, together with others sent by provincial authorities in Honan and Hunan, were a factor in Chiang Kai-shek's decision to retire from office on 21 January 1949, leaving Li Tsung-jen to serve as acting President. Li and Pai evolved a plan to defend the Yangtze River line, but Chiang, who continued to issue orders as tsung-ts'ai [party leader], refused to authorize the plan. By this time, Chiang had already begun to move troops to the offshore islands. Pai Ch'ung-hsi lost battles with the Chinese Communists in Hupeh, Hunan, and Kiangsi after some of his troops were shifted to other areas. In October, when the National Government moved from Canton to Chungking, Pai withdrew to Kwangsi. He planned to make a last stand at the Luichow peninsula and on Hainan Island, but Chiang Kai-shek ordered a large part of his force to Kweichow. At the end of 1949, Pai fled from Nanning to Taiwan. In 1950 Pai Ch'ung-hsi became vice director of the strategic advisory commission in the presidential office. A member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, he also belonged to the committee charged with carrying out party reorganization in Taiwan in 1950-52. On 2 December 1966 he suffered a heart attack and died in Taipei, at the age of 74. He was survived by his wife, Ma P'ei-chang, whom he had married in 1925, and by seven sons and three daughters. Pai Yang & m

Biography in Chinese

白崇禧
字:健生

白崇禧(1893——1966.2.2),桂系将领,其中包括李宗仁、黄绍竑等人,1946—48年任国民政府国防部长,1949年底去台湾,任总统府战略顾问委员会副主任。

白崇禧兄弟三人,排行第二,出生于广西临桂县三威村一个回族农民家庭。他们这一家族历代务农,据说白崇禧出生之前多年由四川迁到广西。他初受中国古书的传统教育后,去会仙镇上中学。1906年十四岁时,进了广西初级陆军学校。同学中有李宗仁、黄绍竑。不久,应家庭要求退学,进了一个文科学校——广西法政学校。1911年底,武昌起义和广西宣布独立后,他离校参加学生军敢死队,黄绍竑是队里的一个班长。该队北上去武昌,但末能赶上参加战斗,旋即转往南京后解散。遣散的学生兵进了南京后备班,后又转往武昌第二陆军预备学校。

1914年冬,白崇禧和他的同学们毕业后,去北京见习六个月。1915年6月,进保定军官学校三年级,同学中有黄绍竑、夏威。1916年底毕业后,他伴同毕业同学三十六人,向北京政府申请去新疆前线服役。北京政府虽按受了申请,给了他一个任命,但此行又在1917年取消。

白崇禧回广西,在桂军第一师任见习军官。1917年夏,广西督办公署建立模范营,日本士官学校毕业生马晓军任营长,其部下军官有白崇禧、黄绍竑、夏威等人。不久模范营奉命去湖南参加护法之役,担任广西督军、湘粤桂护法军司令谭浩明的后卫,榜范营增设机关炮连,白、黄、夏同为副连长,共同统率该连。

1918年秋,谭浩明被吴佩孚击败,模范营改组,白崇禧、黄绍竑分任连长。1919年初,桂军撤回广西,模范营担任桂西警卫,在清剿土匪的战斗中表规了战斗力。是年冬,马晓军因剿匪有功,所部扩编为模范团,并率部前去广东肇庆接替当地警备部队。1920年末,奉陆荣廷之命,东进去广州任警卫。10月,桂军被陈炯明的粤军所击败,被迫沿西江北岸撤回广西。模范团与李宗仁部会合,任后卫。

1921年2月,白、黄回广西后,随同马晓军去百色。6月,粤桂重开战,陈炯明的粤军不久进占广西。模范团力图保持中立并征集兵员。马晓军把它改组成为由五个营组成的部队,白崇禧任第二营营长。当部队为刘日福的广西自治军包围后,白崇禧率随从数人脱逃。增募兵员后,马晓军任白为第二团团长。1921年底粤军击败刘的部队,马晓军等人遂回百色。其间白崇禧在次夜间巡视中坠崖,跌断一腿,还伤及别处,乃将因长之职交给黄绍竑而去广州医治。

1922年夏,白崇禧到广州。1923车2月孙逸仙回广州后,请白崇禧回广州劝黄绍竑就任广西讨逆军司令,希望他率军击败沈鸿英,当时黄正在梧州沈鸿英的部队里。沈鸿英出征部队在广东失败后,是年秋黄绍竑占梧州,进而组成广西讨逆军,以白崇禧为参谋长,并与李宗仁在郁林的广西“定桂军”密切合作以击败省内其他部队。当陆荣廷、沈鸿英争夺广西时,白、黄、李决定与沈鸿英联合。1924年6月,他们的部队占领南宁。翌月,两军合并组成广西“定桂讨贼军”,李宗仁为司令,黄绍竑为副司令,白崇禧为前敌指挥兼参谋长。9月,陆荣廷战败。12月1日,广西“定桂讨贼军”撤消。此时,白、李、黄都已加人国民党。李任广西绥请督办兼桂军第一军军长,黄绍竑任绥靖会办兼桂军第二军军长,白崇禧任绥靖督办公署参谋长及桂军第二军参谋长。1925年初,桂军与李济深的粤军第一师合作,把沈鸿英赶到湖南。不久,云南督军唐继尧打算派兵经广西去广州,企图继承已于3月12日去世的孙逸仙。此后发生的桂北战争中,白崇禧参加了在沙浦的总攻,取得胜利。唐继尧的败军退出广西,白崇禧又协助扫平在广东的熊克武军。其时,他的策略才能使他获得了小诸葛之称,表明他不愧为三国时大军事家诸葛亮的后继人。

1925年底,广西已处在这三个桂系人物的控制之中,两广密切合作的谈判已经开始。1920年3月,经长期谈判,桂军改编为国民革命军第七军,白崇禧任参谋长兼第二旅旅长,李宗仁为军长、黄绍竑为党代表。同月底,派白崇禧、陈铭枢去长沙劝唐生智联介国民革命军。由于他们成功地争取到了唐生智的支持,国民革命军在北伐途中取得了有决定意义的开端。北伐开始,白任国民革命军副总参谋长。1926年11月,国民党军占领南昌,他受命指挥追击部队总指挥。其后他和由广东东江出动的何应钦协同行动,推翻福建督军周荫人。

1927年初,白崇禧任东路军前敌总指挥,2月18日他的部队攻占杭州,3月22曰攻占上海,他兼任淞沪警备司令。4月,他受权在上海清除共产党,4月12日袭击工人纠察队,解除其武装,破坏共产党地下组织,下令枪杀著名共产党人及其他左派人士。从此,在上海轰轰烈烈的共产党活动披扑灭。4月18日,蒋介石在南京成立国民政府以与武汉政府相抗衡,任命白为第二路军代司令。6月,白参与攻占徐州,进军山东,接着因军政局势不稳,撤回苏北。

1927年8月,蒋介石为国民党的团结起见辞职去日本,国民革命军总司令部于是改组为军事委员会,以白崇禧、李宗仁、何应钦为常务委员。8月,三人战胜了渡过长江到达龙潭企图重新占领南京、上海的孙传芳军。9月15日,南京、武汉及西山会议派代表组成中央特别委员会,代行政府职权。武汉的唐生智反对这种重新统一的措施。10月南京当局任白崇禧为前敌总指挥,李宗仁为总司令,出兵讨伐唐生智。11月初,白部攻占武汉,唐生智被迫暂时辞职。1928年初,他又进一步攻入湖南,追击唐生智残部。唐部不久投降,并于1928年2月与其他部队合并组成第四集团军,由李宗仁、白崇禧分任正副总司令。此时,白同时任新编十三军军长,该军是由十四军和第七军第二旅新组成。1928年6月,白参加了向北京的进军,经此役后,北伐结束。北京为国民党军占领后,白统率由四个集团军组成的混合部队,奉命扑灭长城以内的北方军阀残余势力。白于完成此任务后,率军回北京,任政治委员会北京分会委员。经白本人请求,他被派统率华北的第四集团军去开发西北。

1929年初,桂系与蒋介石冲突,蒋派唐生智去华北收回白崇禧所统率的湘军。唐一举成功,白逃回广西。3月26日,撤消李、白本兼各职,并斥责其背叛政府。3月27日,将他们开除出国民党。白崇禧、黄绍竑进攻广东未成,随即又遭刘建绪袭击,桂林亦为刘所占领。继黄绍竑之后,任广西省主席的俞作柏率军于6月27日占领南宁。白、黄经印度支那,去香港与李宗仁会合。11月,三人回广西,在南宁建护党救国军。李为司令,黄为副司令兼广西省主席,白为前敌总指挥。

1930年1月,桂军和张发奎第四军攻打广州,旋即被击败退回广西。5月,这四名将领决定进兵湖南攻占武汉,以支援北方的阎锡山冯玉祥联盟,但在洪桥战败,桂军残部退回广西重新组合。黄绍竑因反对继续内战,乃与桂系分裂。

1931年2月28日,胡汉毎在南京被捕,5月汪精卫、陈友仁、陈济棠等政治领导人在广东成立反对派政府,开辟了广东和广西和解的道路。军事联盟于是形成,粤桂联军于9月初进入湘南向国民政府挑战。9月18日,日本攻占沈阳,国民政府呼吁全国统一。在取得释放李济深、胡汉民以及蒋介石临时去职等结果以后,广州政府自行解散。11月,白崇禧被选入国艮党中央执行委员会。

1932年4月,李宗仁任广西綏靖主任,白崇禧为副主任,二人遂以自治、自卫、自给的三自政策与建立武装的三项政策,开始重建广西的工作。其中心环节是建立民团,白任广西省民团总司令,负责全省民团建设事务。

直至白崇禧实施新的方案以前,"民团”是一个旧词汇,其人数略多于“民兵”。新制度则要把民团建设成为一种政治机构。三十年代初,广西有九十四个县(后增为九十九个),总人口约一千二百人十万,每县十个区,每区十乡,每乡十村,村是基层行政单位。当时广西约有二万四千个村。

据广西1933年6月的兵役法,规定18—45岁精壮男子须强制服役。未应征服役者,需入民因服役。其基层单位为班,包括九到十三个民兵。三、四个班组成排,几个排合成连,村长兼任他所辖的民团连长,几个连合成为营,营长由乡长兼任,几个营合成为纵队,区长兼任纵队长;每县有民团指挥部,县长任全地区各个纵队的指挥官。地区指挥部组成大约十二个师指挥部,均由不担任文职的现役军人负责。师指挥部全部由白崇禧统一指挥。

民团毎人每年必须在业余时间内进行一百八十小时的基础军事训练。白崇禧设想使广西每一名成年壮丁都成为经过训练的士兵,遇有紧急情况,就可以在一夜之间经过有效的广播网,动员起一支人数众多的部队。民团组织又与省的教育制度相结合。民团大多数下级指挥员,都是不领报酬的志愿兵。他们在小学充当教师谋生,因此一个受过训练在民团任职的人要身兼三职——行权人员、民团指挥员和教师,而且在大规模的公共建设中,民团指挥员又是庞大的义务劳役制度的指导者和工头。

在白崇禧的主持下,民团制度把广西变为一个能防范犯罪活动的军事政治组织。同时,广西又自行发展工业,从事建设公共工程。这些成就,使白崇禧和李宗仁成为全国有名的能干的行政官员和有效的群众组织者。

1936年6月,白崇禧调广西部队进湘南,并向粤桂军队下达总动员令。陈济棠、李宗仁这个行动的部分目的在向国民政府预示:有可能采取行动结束胡 汉民死后广东的半独立地位,但其公开的宣传,是因为鉴于蒋介石不抗日而决意北上保卫中国。白、李任抗日救国第一军团副总司令,总司令为陈济棠。此举因广东空军投向国民政府而于7月失败。7月25日,国民政府任命白崇禧为浙江省主席,白了解其目的在将他调离广西而拒未接受。

1936年7月底,白崇禧、李宗仁在广西组织军政府,以李济深为主席。后经黄绍竑,程潜的调解,桂系首领消除了他们和蒋介石的分歧,接受国民政府的统辖,并以桂军改编为第五路军,以李、白为正副总指挥。

1937年7月中日战争爆发后不久,白崇禧去牯岭和蒋介石会商。白任军事委员会副总参谋长和航空委员会委员,在这些岗位上,他在制定沪宁地区的作战战略上起了重大作用。以后又随同国民政府去战时首都重庆,参与制订战略,例如1938年的台儿庄之战。有时,也派他去协助前线司令官筹划作战事宜又协助组织全国伊斯兰救国同盟(后为中国伊斯兰协会),动员回族支持战争,任该同盟主席。

1938年11月,白任桂林行营主任,统一指挥长江以南三个战区。1939年日军在广州湾登陆,侵略广西,白崇禧亲自指挥部队在昆仑关附近与日军作战。由于未能按照命令击退日军,被召回重庆。自此以后一直到战争结束,他任副总参谋长、军训部长、军事委员会监察委员会主席。

1946年6月1日,陆军部改为国防部,白任国防部长,陈诚为总参谋长。1948年,又任战略顾问委员会主任,当时国共争夺大陆的斗争达于高潮。白建议在黄河和长江之间的地区设置一个单一的战区司令官,而蒋介石则主张分设华东及武汉的华中两个司令官,白由国防部长调住武汉。当国民党军在徐州地区的地位恶化之际,召白增授,但为时已过晩。情况进一步恶化,白于12月末迭次致电蒋介石建议与共产党谈判。这些电报,连同河南、湖南省当局的其他电报,是促使蒋介石决定于1949年1月21日辞职,以李宗仁为代总统的一个因索。李、白计划在长江设防,但蒋介石仍以总裁名义下令不予批准。此吋,蒋已开始把军队向沿海岛屿撤退。白崇禧的某些部队被调往别处以后,在湖北,湖南、江西被共产党军所击败。10月,国民政府从广州迁到重庆,白退回广 西,准备在雷州半岛和海南岛建立最后立足点,但蒋介右文下令将他的大批部队调往贵州。1949年底,白从南宁飞注台湾。

1950年,白任总统府战略顾问委员会副主任,并以国民党执行委员身份于1950—1952年参加负责台湾党务改组工作的一个委员会。1966年12月2日因心脏病死在台北,年七十四岁,遗有1925年结婚的妻子马佩常(译音)及子七人,女三人。

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