Chang Chi 張繼 T. P'u-ch'uan 溥泉 Chang Chi (31 August 1882-1 5 December 1947), political figure, an anti-Manchu revolutionary and editor of the Min-pao who became an elder statesman of the Kuomintang and one of the few northern Chinese to achieve prominence in that party. He was a leading member of the right-wing Western Hills group.
A native of Ts'anghsien, Chihli, Chang Chi came from a scholar-gentry family and, as a boy, studied the Confucian classics at home. In 1897 his father, Chang I-nan (T. Hua-ch'en), having been appointed head teacher at Liench'ih Academy at Paoting, took Chang Chi to study there. Wu Ju-lun (T. Chih-fu) was then director of the academy and was developing it into an important educational center in north China. At Paoting, Chang Chi met a visiting Japanese student who suggested that he go to Japan for further education.
For the next few years Chang spent most of his time in Japan studying political economy at Waseda University, reading widely, and entering eagerly into anti-Manchu political activities. Tall, robust, and intelligent, he soon became a leader in the Chinese student community in Tokyo. He changed his personal name to Chi. The ideograph means "continuity" or "succession," and it was intended as a symbol of his dedication to carry on the cause taken up by innumerable Chinese nationalists who had worked throughout the years of the Ch'ing dynasty for its overthrow. In 1900, the year of the Boxer Uprising, Chang Chi joined other Chinese students in Japan to form the Ch'ing-nien-hui [young men's society], a group committed to the overthrow of Manchu rule in China. Gradually he made other political contacts. In 1902, at the age of 20, Chang Chi was introduced to Sun Yat-sen, and later to Chang Ping-lin (q.v.). In the same year he became closely associated with Tsou Jung (ECCP, II, 769) and was a member of the group led by Tsou in an invasion of the home of Yao Wen-fu, the official sent by Peking to supervise Chinese military students in Japan; Tsou cut off Yao's queue. Following this escapade, Tsou Jung and Chang Chi both had to leave Japan, and they fled to Shanghai. In Shanghai Chang Chi resumed his association with Chang Ping-lin and also came to know Chang Shih-chao (q.v.), then editor of the noted newspaper Su Pao. The three of them and Tsou Jung became blood brothers. Both Chang Ping-lin and Chang Chi contributed to the Su Pao, which was then considered to be the most radical of the anti-Manchu publications. The Su Pao was suppressed in the early summer of 1903, and both Chang Ping-lin and Tsou Jung were imprisoned. Later that year Chang Chi joined Chang Shih-chao and others in the organization of a new paper, the Shanghai Kuo-min jih-jih-pao [national daily news], intended as the successor to the Su Pao, but registered with the British consular authorities in Shanghai. In the latter part of 1904 Chang Chi went to Changsha where he became a teacher at the Ming-te School, which had been used by Huang Hsing (q.v.) as a base for revolutionary activities. Although Chang Chi was not a member of the Hua-hsing-hui (organized in December 1903), he nevertheless was constantly with Huang Hsing. An anti-Manchu move planned in November 1904 proved abortive, and Huang Hsing had to take refuge in the home of the pastor of the Anglican church at Changsha. On his way from the school to the pastor's house in a sedan chair, Huang Hsing was accompanied by Chang Chi, who, pistol in hand, walked alongside disguised as a servant. Chang then fled to Shanghai, where he joined the newly organized revolutionary organization, Kuang-fu-hui, of which Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei (q.v.) was elected president.
Chang Chi returned to Japan in 1905, the year of the founding of the T'ung-meng-hui. He was a charter member of the society, was made a judge in its judicial department, and was named head of the Chihli provincial department created by the society. But the main distinction bestowed on him was that he was made the first publisher-editor of the organ of the T'ung-meng-hui, the Min Pao [people's journal], a monthly magazine which began publication in Tokyo in November 1905. Although it has been stated that Hu Han-min (q.v.) actually carried most of the editorial duties during the early period of the magazine, Chang Chi was in charge of its production for the first five issues, the last of which was published in June 1907. From then on, the publisher-editor's job was taken over by Chang Ping-lin. During the latter part of 1906, Chang Chi paid a visit to Java and taught school for a few months. He soon returned to Tokyo. Early in 1907 the Peking government applied pressure on the Japanese authorities to force the deportation of Sun Yat-sen. The Japanese government sought to placate all parties by "persuading" Sun to take a trip outside Japan and by presenting him with a gift of five thousand yen. Sun accepted the gift, took three thousand yen with him, and left the other two thousand at the headquarters of the T'ungmeng-hui to support the production of the Min Pao. This incident led to the first instance of insubordination on the part of Sun's followers: Chang Chi, Chang Ping-lin, and many others opposed Sun's action. Indeed, Chang Ping-lin was so indignant that he removed the portrait of Sun from the wall of the Min Pao offices, and he and Chang Chi even proposed repudiation of Sun as leader of the party and election of Huang Hsing to replace him. That proposal did not gain support, however, and Sun Yat-sen passed over the matter without comment. Chang Ping-lin served as publisher-editor of the Min Pao until December 1907. Chang Chi then took responsibility for editing one issue of the journal, which appeared on 25 February 1908. Chang Chi had left Japan before the publication date, turning over the editorship to T'ao Cheng-chang. Chang went to Europe and spent the years from 1908 to 1911 there. He lived in Paris, Geneva, and London studying, attending free lectures, and also meeting artists, one of whom was Pablo Picasso. In Paris he associated with Li Shih-tseng and Wu Chih-hui (qq.v.), who were attracted by socialism and anarchism. In an effort to put theory into practice, Chang spent the summer of 1908 with comrades of several different nationalities in a communal village in the north of France, where he peddled the vegetables grown by the villagers.
Toward the end of 1911, on receiving news of the Wuchang revolt, Chang Chi hastened back to China. At this time Chang was reported to have joined the China Socialist party organized by Chiang. K'ang-hu in 1912 and to have been elected a leader of that party. Nevertheless, when the T'ung-meng-hui was merged with four other groups to form the Kuomintang in August 1912, Chang Chi was elected one of its councillors. Although Sun Yat-sen was elected director general, he almost immediately entrusted the post to Sung Chiao-jen (q.v.) who became acting director general.
In 1913 Chang Chi was elected to the Senate at Peking and was made speaker. But Yuan Shih-k'ai had already started to work toward the suppression of the Kuomintang members. In turn, the revolutionaries in the middle of the year staged the so-called second revolution against Yuan. After the collapse of the shortlived campaign of 1913, Chang Chi, like many other revolutionary leaders, including Sun Yatsen himself, had to flee to Japan. Sun then reorganized the Kuomintang into the Chunghua ko-ming-tang, which in July 1914 was formally inaugurated in Tokyo. Many of Sun's supporters, including Huang Hsing, Li Lieh-chün, and Ch'en Chiung-ming opposed the reorganization, objecting strongly to Sun's requirements that members pledge personal loyalty to him and that they be fingerprinted. Chang Chi was again one of the staunchest opponents of Sun's plan and refused to give the pledge. Fortunately the rift did not last long, and unity had been restored by 1915 when the campaign against Yuan Shih-k'ai's monarchical movement developed.
Meanwhile, Chang Chi left Japan late in 1914 and visited Europe. In 1915 he went from England to the United States, where he visited the major cities which had Chinese communities to help gain support for the anti- Yuan movement. Late in 1915 Chang Chi left the United States for Japan, and in 1916 he returned to China. When the 1912 provisional constitution was restored and the two houses of Parliament were reassembled, Chang Chi returned to his place in the Senate. When the Parliament was dissolved by President Li Yuan-hung in 1917, Chang Chi moved south to Canton with other members and convened a rump parliament there. A military government was formed in Canton, headed by Sun Yat-sen as generalissimo. Actual control of the area, however, was in the hands of the Kwangsi clique, whose support of the military regime was but a means to extend their own authority. In 1918 when the Canton government was reorganized, Sun Yat-sen was elected one of its seven directors general. However, he did not assume the post and left Canton for Shanghai in June 1918. Chang Chi and many other parliamentarians who supported Sun also left Canton. Chang remained in Shanghai until 1920, when he took another trip to Europe. He returned to China in the summer of 1920 and entered into the party affairs of the Kuomintang. Sun appointed him director of party affairs in north China.
When Ch'en Chiung-ming had succeeded in ousting the Kwangsi clique from Canton and Sun Yat-sen had returned to Canton in November 1920, Chang Chi and many other members of Parliament were recalled. In June 1922, however, Ch'en Chiung-ming revolted, and Sun again had to flee to Shanghai. Chang Chi also left Canton for Shanghai. By that time Sun Yat-sen had resolved to carry out a major reorganization of his party. In September Chang Chi led a group of representative members of the Kuomintang from various provinces at a meeting with Sun for consultation on the promotion of party affairs. Sun Yat-sen then agreed to the proposal that members of the Chinese Communist party be admitted to the Kuomintang as individuals. It was Chang Chi who introduced the Chinese Communist leader Li Ta-chao (q.v.) to Sun Yat-sen in Shanghai, and Li became the first Communist to become a member of the Kuomintang. In November 1922, Chang Chi again joined Kuomintang representatives from various provinces to attend a meeting convened by Sun Yat-sen to examine the draft plan for the reorganization of the party. At that meeting Hu Han-min and Wang Ching-wei (q.v.) were commissioned to draft the manifesto of reorganization. Chang Chi was then head of the propaganda department of the Kuomintang headquarters, and he and the directors of other departments tendered their resignations jointly on 18 December 1922. The manifesto was subsequently issued on 1 January 1923. On 21 January 1923 Sun Yat-sen appointed new officers to the headquarters of the Kuomintang, and Yeh Ch'u-ts'ang was made director of the propaganda department. Chang Chi was made a councillor, as were many other leaders, including Chang Jen-chieh, Chü Cheng, Hsieh Ch'ih, Liao Chung-k'ai, Tai Chi-t'ao, and Yu Yu-jen.
In October 1923 the reorganization of the Kuomintang entered a new stage with the appointment by Sun of a provisional central committee to make preparations for the first congress of the party in January 1924. Chang Chi was not a delegate to the First National Congress of the Kuomintang, which opened at Canton on 20 January 1924. He was, however, elected to full membership on the Central Supervisory Committee, which consisted of five full members and five alternates. At the time, in addition to the central headquarters of the party then located at Canton, the Kuomintang maintained executive headquarters at Shanghai, "Peking, Hankow, Chungking, and Harbin. While the majority of the members of the two central committees were attached to the central headquarters, various members were assigned to take charge of the executive headquarters. For reasons that are unclear, Chang Chi was not assigned to the Peking headquarters, which controlled the north China and northwestern provinces, but to the Shanghai headquarters. The composition of the first central organs of the Kuomintang reflected the growing influence of the Chinese Communist party. As early as 16 June 1924, Chang Chi, Teng Tse-ju, and Hsieh Ch'ih, three of the five full members of the Central Supervisory Committee, addressed a communication to the Central Executive Committee of the party impeaching the Communists and condemning their infiltration of the Kuomintang. On 25 June 1924, Chang Chi and Hsieh Ch'ih also called on the Soviet adviser Borodin. With Sun Fo (q.v.) as interpreter, they took the Russian envoy to task for the activities of the Chinese Communists. The impeachment, however, was rejected by the Central Executive Committee at a meeting held on 3 July 1924. Four days later that body issued a statement calling on members of the party to dispel misunderstandings and reiterating the Three People's Principles as the sole means to the success of the revolution, hoping thus to allay the fears of the conservatives. Sun Yat-sen died in Peking in March 1925, and on 1 July 1925 the National Government was organized at Canton. Chang Chi was elected a member of the 16-man State Council, headed by Wang Ching-wei. By this time more of the Kuomintang veterans had become opposed to the Communists. In November 1925 these veterans held a meeting in the Western Hills near Peking. This meeting later became known as the Western Hills conference, and its participants and supporters were referred to as the Western Hills clique. Of the 24 members of the Central Executive Committee (which included three Communists), ten were present at this meeting. Chang Chi, who was a member of the Central Supervisory Committee, was reported as being present at the meeting as an observer. Actually, he was not present because of a head injury, though he doubtless gave the gathering his full support. Hsieh Ch'ih, also a member of the Central Supervisory Committee, was present as an observer. Teng Tse-ju, the third member of the trio who had submitted the 1924 impeachment, was in Canton when the Western Hills meeting was held, but he reportedly gave financial aid to the gathering. His participation in the Western Hills group cost Chang Chi temporary loss of his position in the central apparatus of the Kuomintang. The Second National Congress of the Kuomintang, which met in January 1926, adopted a resolution calling for disciplinary action against the members of the Western Hills group and threatening their dismissal from the party unless they repented. Chang was not re-elected to the Central Supervisory Committee. In September 1927, however, party unity was restored among the three factions then based at Wuhan, Nanking, and Shanghai (the Western Hills group). Chang Chi was a member of the special committee established to carry out that reunification.
In June 1928 Chang Chi was made a member of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission and also a member of the provisional branch of the Central Political Council at Peiping. He became chairman of the council in August 1928, succeeding Li Shih-tseng. In October of that year, Chang Chi was made a member of the State Council and vice president of the Judicial Yuan. In November, Chang and Li Shih-tseng were assigned the task of inspecting party affairs in Peiping, Hopei, Shantung, and Shansi.
In 1931 the arrest of Hu Han-min at Nanking led to a separation movement in Canton, where a rival national government was set up with the support of many prominent men, including Wang Ching-wei, T'ang Shao-yi, Sun Fo, and C. C. Wu. However, the threat of civil war was averted by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in September 1931. Late in October 1931 Chang Chi, together with Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei and Ch'en Ming-shu (q.v.), went from Nanking to Canton as a peace emissary. On 21 November the Nanking envoys returned to Shanghai accompanied by the southern leaders Wang Ching-wei, Tsou Lu, C. C. Wu, and Eugene Ch'en. Early in December 1933, after the outbreak of the Fukien revolt, led by Ch'en Ming-shu with the Nineteenth Route Army as military support, Chang Chi headed a Nanking delegation which visited the provinces o
Kwangtung and Kwangsi to study the attitude of the southern leaders and to prevent them from supporting the Fukien regime. Chang Chi called on Hu Han-min in Hong Kong both on his way to Canton and on his return journey. Although he had extensive discussions with Hu, he failed to persuade him to return to the government at Nanking. Earlier in 1933, the Kuomintang had established a north China office of the party, located in Hsin-hsiang, Honan, and, after the southern mission, Chang Chi was appointed its director. In this capacity he traveled frequently in the north, visiting such places as Peiping, Loyang, and Sian. In November 1935, at the sixth plenum of the fourth Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang at Nanking, as a group photograph was being taken, an attempt on the life of Wang Ching-wei, then president of the Executive Yuan, was thwarted as Chang Chi and Chang Hsueh-liang both grappled with the would-be assassin and overpowered him.
During the Sino-Japanese war Chang Chi was principally concerned with the preservation and organization of documentary materials relevant to the history of the Kuomintang. In 1937 he became chairman of the central party history committee and traveled to Szechwan by way of Nanchang and Changsha, supervising the transfer of important archives to safety. During the war years in Chungking, Chang frequently lectured on party history. He also served as head of the central comforting corps, devoting much time to visiting military units in the field.
In the last two years of his life (1945-47), Chang continued to travel on Kuomintang business. After the enactment of the new constitution in 1947, he became vice chairman of the committee to promote the implementation of constitutional government. At the beginning of 1947 he was named the first director of the Kuo-shih-kuan [national history institute], after having headed its preparatory committee since 1940. Chang Chi died in Nanking on 15 December 1947, at the age of 66, after a political career spanning nearly 50 years. His writings and speeches, Chang Pu-ch'üan hsien-sheng ch'üanchi [complete works of Chang Pu-ch'üan] and Chang Pu-ch'üan hsien-sheng ch'uan-chi pu-pien [supplement to the complete works of Chang Pu-ch'üan], were published in 1951 and 1952 in Taiwan.
Chang Chi was survived by his wife, Ts'ui Chan-hua (1886-), whom he married in Tientsin in 1912. She was a delegate to the National Assembly in 1947 which enacted the constitution. After his death she went to live in Taiwan, serving as a member of the Control Yuan of the National Government. Chang's two sons both predeceased him : Chang Hsiung (1916-1921) and Chang K'un (1917-1945). The latter had gone to France for education in 1932 and had returned to China in 1937. He was murdered in Chengtu in 1945; his corpse was found in a graveyard. Chang Chi also had two daughters: Chang Ying (1913-) and Chang Lin (1922-).