Biography in English

Chiang K'ang-hu Orig. Chiang Shao-ch'üan Alt. Kiang Kang-hu Chiang K'ang-hu (18 July 1883-?), scholar, teacher, and propagandist of various reform causes. He founded the first Chinese socialist party in 1912, but later became more conservative. His ineffectual political career was broken by a scandal concerning restoration of the Manchu empire, and Chiang later took part in the Japanese-sponsored government of Wang Ching-wei. He is known in the United States principally for his donation of a book collection to the University of California and for his collaboration with Witter Bynner in an anthology, The Jade Mountain (1929), in which his signature is Kiang Kang-hu.

A native of Shangjao, Kiangsi, Chiang K'ang-hu was born into a scholar-official family. His grandfather, Chiang Chu-yun (1830-92; T. Yün-t'ao) was a chin-shih of 1877 who served for some ten years at Peking and ended his career in Shantung province. His father, Chiang Te-hsuan (1854-1910; T. Hsiao-t'ao), was a chin-shih of 1886 who served for 20 years at the capital and ended his career as an acting prefect in Kiangsu. Chiang K'ang-hu was the only son of his father's second wife, nee Hsu (1861-1889). In 1887 the family went to Peking. In 1890 Chiang K'ang-hu moved to Shantung, where his grandfather had been appointed to an official post as tao-t'ai. In 1892, at the time of his grandfather's death, he returned to his native district in Kiangsi. Two years later he went back to Peking.

Chiang K'ang-hu was a precocious youth. He reportedly was adept at composition in the classical style at the age of 10 and, when not quite 15, embarked on the study of the Japanese language at the T'ung-wen hsueh-she in preparation for study abroad. In 1 900, after the Boxer Uprising, he went to Japan. In 1901, at the invitation of Yuan Shih-k'ai, who had just been appointed governor general of Chihli, he returned to China to head the Pei-yang pien-ichü, where he was in charge of compiling textbooks for the primary and middle schools of the five northern provinces. Although Chiang soon tired of the bureaucratic routine at Peking, he appreciated the recognition that Yuan Shih-k'ai bestowed on him. Chiang then served as a secretary in the Board of Justice. In 1904 he accepted a position to teach Japanese at the Ching-shih ta-hsueh-t'ang, the predecessor of National Peking University. At the same time, he founded in succession a total of four women's schools at Peking to train future teachers. These schools, though private, were partially subsidized by Yuan Shih-k'ai, then the Pei-yang ta-ch'en, and by Tuan-fang, then the Nan-yang ta-ch'en. In 1909 they were handed over to the ministry of education, and one of the four schools later became Women's Higher Normal College.

Chiang went to Japan in 1907 to study English, French, and German so that he could read foreign publications and become familiar with Western social theories. By his own claim, he was the first Chinese to become acquainted with the writings of Henry George, who propounded the thesis that private appropriation of increases in land values was the sole cause of modern social inequities. In any event, Chiang K'ang-hu did become acquainted with socialism following his 1907 trip to Japan. The Japanese Socialist party had been established a year earlier, and many Chinese students in Tokyo went to its public meetings. In 1909 he journeyed to Europe where, as an unofficial Chinese representative, he attended the Congress of the Second International held at Brussels. While studying in Japan and in Europe before 1910, Chiang became acquainted with the group of young Chinese radicals then interested in socialism and anarchism, including Wu Chihhui, Chang Chi, Li Shih-tseng, and Ch'u Min-i (qq.v.), and with pioneer Japanese socialists, including Kotoku Shüsui, Katayama Sen, and Sakai Toshihiko. While in Europe he also met leading European and American socialists. During this period, Chiang published two articles advocating the dissolution of the family and condemning free enterprise. Written under the pen name Hsu An-ch'eng, these articles appeared in April and May of 1909 in Hsin shih-chi [new century], the revolutionary paper then edited by Wu Chih-hui and published in Paris.

Chiang returned from Europe to China after the death of his father on 5 December 1910. He then lived in semi-retirement at Nanking to observe the conventional mourning period. He did give some public lectures, in the course of which he unexpectedly gained national prominence. When invited to speak at Hangchow, he addressed himself to the problem of the relation between women's education and socialism. That talk, delivered on 1 June 1911, was perhaps the first public lecture on socialism in China. It aroused the wrath of Tseng Yun, the governor of Chekiang, who at once sent a memorial to the throne demanding that Chiang be punished severely for his advocacy of heretical ideas. Thanks to a warning received from Ku Chunghsiu, who was then secretary to the governor of Chihli, Chiang was warned of the government's wrath and was able to flee to the foreign concessions of Shanghai. Chang An-p'u, the governor of Kiangsu, who was acquainted with the Chiang family, spoke on his behalf, and Chiang avoided punishment.

After the Hangchow episode in the summer of 1911, Chiang K'ang-hu continued to work actively for the propagation of socialism. On 2 September of that year, he organized a mass meeting at Shanghai under the joint sponsorship of the Hsi-yin kung-hui [women's progressive society] and the newspaper T'ien-to pao. The gathering was attended by some 400 people, of whom some 50 joined a socialist study society. The Chinese Socialist party was organized from the study society and was established in 1912 with its headquarters in Shanghai. Chiang claimed that it was the first political party and that its formation marked the beginning of free political association in China. The party, largely under his personal direction, issued an eightpoint platform advocating support of the republican form of government, cessation of discrimination against ethnic minorities, improvement of legal protection for the individual person, abolition of private ownership of property, popularization of education, development of public enterprises, reform of taxes, and limitations on armament combined with emphasis on more constructive forms of international competition. As a token gesture of congratulation, Sun Yat-sen, who had been elected the provisional president of China, sent Chiang a number of recent European and American publications on socialism. Branches of the party, about 250 in all, were established in other cities of China, though the group encountered sharp suppression in Hunan, then governed by T'an Yen-k'ai, and in Hupeh. Chiang K'ang-hu declared that the principal mission of the Socialist party during its early years was to propagate socialist ideas, not to engage in concrete activities. However, since popular understanding of socialism in China was minimal, he did plan one practical experiment in socialism to be conducted on Ch'ungming island at the mouth of the Yangtze river. Although Chiang reportedly secured the approval of T'ang Shao-yi, then the premier at Peking, to visit the island, the project proved abortive. The Chinese Socialist party, under Chiang's leadership, maintained contact with its Japanese counterpart, and the party's headquarters at Shanghai was visited by Korean and Indo-Chinese irredentists, who reportedly voiced the hope that the Chinese Socialist party would support and lead the weak nationalities of Asia.

Chiang K'ang-hu's concept of socialism in 1912 was generally unfamiliar in China, and it was criticized by other Chinese political figures who viewed themselves as socialists. One early problem which the Socialist party confronted was whether it should remain a pure socialist party linked with the international socialist movement or become a domestic political party participating in the national government of China. Chiang's personal view in 1912 was to maintain the party's pure character in its commitment to the world socialist movement. Furthermore, in June 1912, Chiang went to Peking to call on Yuan Shih-k'ai to state his own moderate views on socialism in order to prevent any government suppression of the party. He emphasized that the party had only educational objectives and did not seek political power. He voiced the hope that Yuan Shih-k'ai would enforce national socialism, since it was, according to Chiang, the only way to develop strong government and a strong nation. Should Yuan do this, Chiang K'ang-hu guaranteed the support of his party, which allegedly had 20,000 members.

That action and other conflicts with regard to the proper definition of socialism led to much dissatisfaction among Chiang K'ang-hu's followers. In October 1912 a group within the Socialist party that advocated anarchist communism began a separatist movement. That group soon was suppressed by Yuan Shih-k'ai. In 1913, after the so-called second revolution broke out, Yuan Shih-k'ai on 7 August banned the Socialist party because of its radicalism. Recognizing that he could no longer rely on his personal ties with Yuan Shih-k'ai, Chiang K'ang-hu fled the country. He continued to be the acknowledged leader of the Socialist party, however, though Liu Ssu-fu (q.v.), the anarchist leader, made bitter attacks on his allegedly muddled views. Liu contested Chiang's assertions that Marxist collectivism was the only form of socialism and claimed that the Socialist party leader had only a limited understanding of socialism and was particularly weak in his knowledge of the anarchist-communist variety. Liu Ssu-fu also pointed to the political platform of the Socialist party, which called only for moderate reform of the existing social system, and concluded that Chiang K'ang-hu, like Sun Yat-sen, was no true socialist. From 1913 to 1920 Chiang resided in the United States. He taught Chinese at the University of California in Berkeley. In 1916 he made an important contribution to its library resources when he presented to that institution some 13,000 volumes from his father's library, which he had brought from China. For several summers he worked at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., cataloguing Chinese books and helping to build up its Chinese collection. Chiang K'ang-hu returned to China in 1920. In the months following the May Fourth Movement of 1919, the cause of socialism had begun to interest the students and young intellectuals of China. These intellectuals were not all converted to socialism, but those who were converted brought more disciplined energy to that cause than had been characteristic of the earlier members of the rather loosely organized Socialist party. The early Communist leader Chang Kuo-t'ao (q.v.) later recalled his first encounter with Chiang K'ang-hu at Peking University in the autumn of 1920. Chiang showed little interest in the problem of labor organization or in joint action on the part of all socialists in China. Rather, he suggested that the best prospects for the development of socialism in China lay in parliamentary activity. Since Chang Kuo-t'ao and his associates regarded that course as impractical, the encounter virtually extinguished the possibility of political cooperation between the future Chinese Communist party and the socialists associated with Chiang K'ang-hu.

Chiang's principal concern after his return to China was planning a trip to Russia to investigate conditions there. In 1920, however, it was difficult in Peking to secure valid documents for travel to Russia. Chiang then sought the assistance of Hsu Shih-ch'ang (q.v.), who held the presidency at Peking. Since Hsu Shih-ch'ang and Chiang K'ang-hu's father had passed the metropolitan examination in the same year, and thus were linked in the t'ung-nien relationship, he helped Chiang to secure a passport for travel to Russia and Europe. Through the introduction of Yurin, then the representative at Peking of the Soviet Far Eastern Republic, Chiang became acquainted with Shen Ch'ung-hsun, who was about to be sent as Peking's representative to the Far Eastern Republic, and was able to obtain space on the special train reserved for Shen. They left for Harbin on the way to Russia in March 1921. In Russia, Chiang reestablished contact with a number of Russians he had previously met in the United States and who had become officials in the Far Eastern Republic.

From 22 June to 12 July 1921, Chiang K'ang-hu attended the Third Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as a Socialist representative from China. At that meeting he was exposed to aggressive Communist (Bolshevik) policies. In January 1922 he attended the Congress of Far Eastern Revolutionary Parties at Moscow. That meeting, generally known as the First Congress of the Toilers of the East, had originally been scheduled for November 1921 at Irkutsk to counter the operations of the so-called imperialist powers at the Washington Conference. Circumstances in Russia, however, caused repeated postponement and the shift of the meeting site to Moscow. While in Russia, Chiang had formal and informal meetings with Bolshevik leaders, including Lenin, Trotsky, Bukharin, Chicherin, Lunacharsky, and the Hungarian leader Bela Kun. In his travel account, Chiang said that he considered Adolf Joffe a first-rate negotiator and diplomat whose skill had already been demonstrated by his term as Soviet representative in Germany. At that time, Joffe had just been appointed to go to China to initiate discussions with Sun Yat-sen.

The most significant event of Chiang's trip in Russia, however, was his attempt to capture and use Outer Mongolia for socialist experimentation His interest in Outer Mongolia dated back to January 1913, when Mongolia and Tsarist Russia had contracted a secret treaty at the expense of Chinese sovereignty over Outer Mongolia. Amidst the public furor in China aroused by this treaty, Chiang had published an article entitled "The Frontier Policy of the Socialist Party." That article advocated, among other things, that frontier areas such as Sinkiang, Tibet, and Mongolia be considered special territories, indirectly belonging to the Chinese republic but retaining autonomy in internal administration; that these areas be recognized by foreign powers as perpetual neutral zones; and that socialists be allowed to try out their programs in these areas. Despite Chiang's statement that his proposal was supported by the military governors of Anhwei, Chekiang, and Sinkiang, the Shanghai newspapers censured him for attempting to take advantage of the national emergency for his own political purposes. Eight years later, when in Russia, Chiang again proposed that Outer Mongolia should be used for socialist experimentation. In 1921 there were many Chinese workers in Russia who had acquired some military training during the Bolshevik revolution. Chiang thought these workers in Russia could be organized into a Chinese contingent to be sent to Outer Mongolia with Bolshevik arms to drive out the White Russian occupation troops. The Chinese contingent was to establish Outer Mongolia as a neutral area (while allowing the Bolsheviks certain advantages) and to experiment with socialism. In connection with this scheme, Chiang called on Lenin and reportedly obtained some measure of agreement from the Russian authorities. However, after reaching an understanding with Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), the Bolsheviks were able to invade Outer Mongolia and drive out the White Russian troops before Chiang's contingent could be organized.

After a year in Russia, Chiang went to Western Europe in the spring of 1922. There he was stranded with insufficient funds to return to China. Hsu Shih-ch'ang, who still held the presidency at Peking, again came to his aid and paid for his passage home. While in Russia, Chiang had witnessed the end of military communism and the transition to the New Economic Policy phase of reconstruction. On his return to China, he reasoned that China, because the country and its recent history were unlike Russia, should chart its own course of development. Abandoning his former views, he began expounding what he termed new democracy and new socialism for China. The concept of new democracy, which Chiang later renamed limited democracy, involved three basic principles. These were: political participation of educationally qualified citizens through voting; supremacy of the legislative power over the administrative and judicial powers to avoid deadlocks and inefficiency; and representative government through trade and professional organizations to avoid the dictatorship of any single class. New socialism, which Chiang subsequently renamed socialist capitalism, postulated: public ownership of property; workers' compensation; and public welfare. In order to propagate his system of new democracy-new socialism, Chiang K'ang-hu assumed the presidency of the Nan-fang tahsueh [university of the south] at Shanghai in 1923 when that institution was expanded from a technical college to a university. The new university, which also had a branch at Peking, for a time was quite popular with the younger generation in China. Chiang made a fundraising trip to Southeast Asia, where he was greeted with considerable enthusiasm in many overseas Chinese communities of that region. Because of his trip to Russia and his reported involvement with the affairs of Outer Mongolia, however, he was declared persona non grata in the Dutch colonies and was carefully watched by the British colonial authorities.

Chiang returned to China encouraged by the Chinese support which he had found. On 15 June 1924 he announced the revival of the Chinese Socialist party. In January 1925 he reorganized that party into the New Social Democratic party, with headquarters at Peking and branch offices at Shanghai and other cities. When lecturing duties took him to Hunan in 1924, he took part in discussions on revision of the Hunan provincial constitution. He later published his draft constitution with the hope that it would serve as a model provincial constitution should the federal system become a reality in China {see Chao Heng-t'i). After Tuan Ch'i-jui had emerged from retirement to become chief executive at Peking, Chiang was invited to participate in the Shan-hou hui-i [aftermath conference], which met in February 1925. In the spring of that year, as Tuan's regime went through the motions of preparing for a new national assembly, Chiang was named to membership on the commitee to draft a new national constitution. He appeared to be gaining moderate political momentum in north China when his fortunes suffered an unexpectedly sharp blow in 1925.

Earlier, in 1924, Chiang had conceived the idea of seeking an interview with the deposed Manchu emperor, P'u-yi (q.v.), apparently with the hope of converting him to socialism. To that end he wrote to Chin-liang, a Manchu close to P'u-yi and a former colleague of Chiang at the Ching-shih ta-hsueh-t'ang. The letter to Chin-liang, which expressed Chiang K'ang-hu's personal good will toward the Manchu court, was published in 1925 in a book entitled Ch'ingshih mi-mou fu-p'i wen-cheng [documentary evidence on the secret plot of the Ch'ing house to restore itself]. Chiang's political sense was at once called into question, and he was accused of "putting on the cloak of modernity in order better to betray the youth of China." His students at the Nan-fang ta-hsueh were vociferous in demanding that he be dismissed as the institution's president. Although Chiang attempted to argue that there was no other evidence to corroborate the charge that he favored the restoration of the Manchu dynasty, his refutation went unheard. His position as a responsible educator was undermined ; and the provincial association of his native province, Kiangsi, refused to recognize him as a native and expelled him. Under heavy pressure, Chiang was forced to resign the presidency of the Nan-fang ta-hsueh. He remained for a time in Peking. Recognizing that his political career had ended, Chiang later left for Canada. There he taught Chinese and related subjects at McGill University in Montreal. Although he continued to comment on the contemporary situation in China, he gradually turned toward traditionalism and became convinced that a reformed China could only be built on a foundation of classical Chinese cultural values. An indication of his changing outlook was the appearance in 1929 of The Jade Mountain, an English translation of the T'ang-shih san-pai shou [three hundred poems of the T'ang dynasty], a standard anthology of T'ang poetry. Prepared in collaboration with the American poet Witter Bynner, that volume also contained a discussion of Chinese poetry written by Chiang.

Chiang K'ang-hu's growing traditionalism was again in evidence at Shanghai in 1934, when he presented a series of lectures on Confucian philosophy. He then headed a cultural mission to the United States to display Chinese art objects and delivered lectures in Hawaü and Japan on the way back to the Far East. When the war with Japan erupted in July 1937, Chiang was living .at Peking. He soon left for west China, where he lectured in Szechwan and Sikang. Most Chinese at that time viewed the war against Japan primarily as a patriotic struggle to defend China against her national enemy. Chiang K'ang-hu, however, held that the struggle against Japan was related to the cause of world peace and the preservation of East Asian civilization.

However, these lofty concepts failed to aid Chiang K'ang-hu in finding employment. Perhaps his reputation as a Manchu supporter prevented his finding a teaching post and placed sustained pressure on his finances. In any event, he moved to Hong Kong, where he became noted for advocating "ten ways to good living," including vegetarianism. In Hong Kong, Chiang deserted modern subjects completely and attempted a return to the practice of tutoring disciples in the Confucian tradition, which required traditional trappings as well as stipulated payments presented to the so-called Master in ceremonial envelopes. But this type of instruction had lost its appeal, and ambitious Chinese middle school graduates were unlikely to turn to Confucian instruction in preference to modern university instruction.

Because this venture was unsuccessful, when Chiang was invited to go to Shanghai by men involved in the so-called peace movement, which was designed to work out a compromise settlement with the Japanese, he accepted. He later took a post in the Japanese-sponsored government established in March 1940 and headed by Wang Ching-wei. Chiang became deputy head of the examination yuan at Nanking, with responsibility for supervising civil service examinations. His latter-day philosophy, articulated as the concept of hui-hsiang tungfang [return to the East], was sufficiently flexible to be adjusted to the political requirements of the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere evolved in Tokyo. In 1942 Chiang republished the lectures on the Confucian Analects which he had delivered at Shanghai in 1934. "As long as Confucian temples are preserved," he wrote, "the reconstruction of the Great East Asian civilization will soon come." Such statements expressed Chiang's exaltation of the traditional Chinese heritage and marked the distance he had traveled from his interest in socialism. There is no information on his fate after the Japanese surrender in 1945.

Vain, opportunistic, and volatile, Chiang K'ang-hu nevertheless demonstrated notable vision and courage during his early career in China. Before the fall of the imperial dynasty, he had advocated such heterodox causes as women's education, romanization of the Chinese language, and socialism. His personal contacts included republican revolutionaries such as Sung Chiao-jen, early Communists such as P'eng P'ai, and conservative classical scholars such as Yeh Te-hui. Chiang's early essays on socialism were published in 1913 under the title Hung-shui chi [the flood]. The title was apparently inspired by the 1911 memorial to the throne by the governor of Chekiang, who had demanded severe punishment for Chiang for having advocated such a hung-shui meng-shou [destructive as flood waters and savage as wild beasts] ideology. His books on his journeys to Russia and Southeast Asia are entitled, respectively, Hsin-Ou yu-chi [journey to a new Europe] and Nan-yu hui-hsiang chi [recollections of the journey to the south]. Chiang's speeches on social and political problems were published in several volumes during the 1920's. Chiang K'ang-hu married his first wife, nee Liu (b. 1883), in 1898. He had seven children by her, four of whom died in infancy. Chiang married again in 1920 in the United States. His second wife, Lu Hsiu-ying, was an Americanborn Chinese whose field of interest was nurseryschool education. They returned to China together in 1920, and she accompanied Chiang on his trips to the Soviet Union and Europe in 1921-22. In 1927, three children of the first marriage were alive: one son, then 25, and two daughters, one in college and the other in middle school. At that time two children of the second marriage were also living in Peking: a son, Lung-nan, who had been born in Moscow on 24 November 1921, and a daughter named Feng-nü.

Biography in Chinese

江亢虎 原名:江绍程





























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