Biography in English

Chang Jen-chieh 張人傑 T. Ching-chiang Chang Jen-chieh (19 September 1877-3 September 1950), businessman and goverment official, was an early supporter of Sun Yat-sen and a patron of Chiang Kai-shek. He was one of the "four elder statesmen of the Kuomintang" and served as governor of Chekiang province and as director of the National Reconstruction Commission at Nanking. Wuhsing hsien, Chekiang, was the birthplace of Chang Jen-chieh. He was born into a family which had come from Huichou, in Anhwei. His native town, Nan-hsun-chen, was famed as a center of silk culture, and both of his grandfathers were wealthy silk merchants noted for their generosity and for their adventurous spirit. The second of seven sons in the family, Chang was a precocious child and reportedly mastered several of the Chinese classics by the age of eight. He also showed a flair for calligraphy at a very early age. He was, however, a spoiled lad as well and loved to ride horseback through the crowded streets of the town.

Because of the financial security which his family provided, Chang Jen-chieh did not have to prepare for an official career through the traditional method of sitting for the imperial examinations. While he was still in his teens, the family purchased for him the official qualification of expectant tao-t'ai. In 1901 Chang visited Peking, ostensibly to seek an official post for which that qualification might be suited. There he met Li Shih-tseng (q.v.). Their lifelong friendship was to leave a considerable imprint on the subsequent history of the Chinese revolution. The two youths found that they shared many interests, the most compelling of which was the desire to go abroad to widen their horizons. Their desire was soon fulfilled. In 1902, Sun Pao-ch'i was appointed Chinese minister to France. Both Chang Jen-chieh and Li Shih-tseng joined his staff as attaches.

On arrival in Paris, Chang Jen-chieh surveyed the market for Chinese products in Europe. As a result of the survey he decided to establish a private trading company for the sale of curios, tea, and silk. He took a trip back to China to raise capital for the projected enterprise. While the proposition seemed attractive, few Chinese would venture to invest in it, and in the end it was his father, Chang Ting-fu, who provided him with China $300 thousand to launch the Ton Ying (T'ung-yun) Company. That company long remained a family enterprise in Paris, later branching out to New York.

Chang's activities as a curio merchant brought him into contact with many intellectuals, among whom were some anarchists. He read some anarchist literature and agreed with the tenets which he discovered there. However, since he was on the staff of the imperial Chinese legation, the more radically inclined Chinese students in Europe were suspicious of his motives, and few dared to have open relations with him.

In 1905, on a visit to London, he met Wu Chih-hui (q.v.), who had met Chang's friend Li Shih-tseng earlier in Shanghai. Chang Jenchieh and Wu Chih-hui took to each other at once. Shortly after this meeting, and possibly because of it, Chang Jen-chieh, Li Shih-tseng, and Wu Chih-hui formed the Shih-chieh-she, a cultural and revolutionary publishing house, with a printing establishment as its affiliate.

It was about this time that Chang Jen-chieh met Sun Yat-sen. According to Sun, the two met on board a French steamship in 1906. Chang offered Sun financial aid for his revolutionary movement. Then, early in 1907 when Sun Yat-sen was in Saigon plotting an uprising in southwestern Kwangtung, he sent two messages to Chang Jen-chieh asking for funds, and Chang responded to both, giving a total of China $60 thousand. Sun's close adherents, including Hu Han-min, had not known of Chang, and they were surprised by his support.

Meanwhile, chiefly through Chang's financial support, the Hsin shih-chi [new century] began publication in Paris in June 1907, with Wu Chih-hui and Li Shih-tseng doing the bulk of the writing. The magazine issued a total of 121 numbers, but had to be suspended on 21 May 1910 after suffering heavy financial losses.

In 1907, chiefly for health reasons, Chang Jen-chieh took another trip, traveling by way of Hong Kong. At this time, he was officially admitted to the T'ung-meng-hui. Records preserved by the Kuomintang state that Chang had joined the T'ung-meng-hui in Singapore in 1906, but Feng Tzu-yu (q.v.) reported that Chang was admitted officially in Hong Kong in June 1907, when he was on his way back to Shanghai. Feng Tzu-yu, who was then head of the Hong Kong branch of the T'ung-menghui, and Hu Han-min administered the oath of admission at a ceremony which was exceptional in that they, respecting Chang's beliefs, waived the use of the words "by heaven" in the phrase "I swear by heaven." The two dates are not necessarily incompatible; Chang could have joined the league when its Singapore branch was established, yet delayed taking the oath of admission until 1907.

His generous contributions to both the anti- Manchu cause and the operational costs of the Hsin shih-chi had drawn heavily on the resources of Chang's curio business in Paris. In 1908, therefore, he made plans to establish a bank at Shanghai to finance realty purchases, raising funds through the issuance of debentures by the bank. He sought the cooperation of French banks, for only a foreign organization could command the confidence necessary for such schemes. The plan failed to materialize, but the French took up the idea and later established their own financing house in Shanghai.

Chang Jen-chieh returned to Paris in the summer of 1 9 1 0. The outbreak of the Wuchang revolt in the autumn of 191 1 brought him back to China; it also prompted Wu Chih-hui and Li Shih-tseng to return. When Sun Yat-sen became provisional president in January 1912, he wished to make Chang Jen-chieh finance minister, but Chang stoutly declined. When the so-called second revolution of 1913 failed, and Sun Yat-sen reorganized the revolutionary party as the Chung-hua ko-ming-tang, Chang was among its most enthusiastic supporters. Sun made him director of the finance department, and, though illness prevented him from taking up the post actively, Chang permitted his name to be used by the deputy director, Liao Chungk'ai (q.v.). Sun had also appointed Teng Tse-ju director of the finance department in charge of the Southeast Asia branches of the party. When Chiang Kai-shek joined the Chung-hua kuoming-tang in 1914, his oath of allegiance was taken before Chang Jen-chieh.

After the death of Yuan Shih-k'ai in 1916, Chang remained at Shanghai and, although he was not active in politics during the next few years, he remained a staunch partisan. His home in the French concession at Shanghai became a meeting place for hard-pressed comrades. Chang was a shrewd businessman and reportedly had extensive dealings in the stock exchange in Shanghai. During this period he came to know Chiang Kai-shek more intimately. After the assassination of Ch'en Ch'i-mei (q.v.) in 1916, Chang Jen-chieh in a sense replaced Ch'en as Chiang's patron, and he exerted great influence on his younger protege. Chiang Kai-shek treated Chang Jen-chieh with every respect, and in one of his letters he stated: "Tai Chi-t'ao is my beneficial friend, you, sir, are my good teacher." Chang Jen-chieh, in turn, gave Chiang moral support and encouragement on several occasions.

When Sun Yat-sen, late in 1921, decided on what proved to be the final reorganization of the Kuomintang, Chang Jen-chieh was included in the group of some 60 representative comrades of the party, selected regionally, to attend three preliminary meetings in December 1922 and discuss the plans. When the reorganization was effected at the First National Congress of the Kuomintang in January 1924, Chang was elected to the Central Executive Committee, although he did not attend the meeting. The Central Executive Committee had a system of maintaining executive headquarters at selected regional centers, and Chang was assigned to the Shanghai executive quarters, together with Wang Ching-wei, Yeh Ch'u-ts'ang, and Yü Yujen. The Shanghai headquarters had jurisdiction over Kiangsu, Chekiang, Anhwei, and Kiangsi.

Later that year, Chang Jen-chieh suffered a serious attack of a foot disease, and Sun Yat-sen was so concerned about his health that he wrote Chang a special letter in June 1924 recommending the service of a doctor who had recently returned from Germany. Later, in February 1925, when Sun lay ill of cancer in the hospital in Peking and radium treatment had proved of no avail, Chang Jen-chieh suggested the consultation of practioners of traditional Chinese medicine. Sun, however, vetoed the suggestion. Chang was present in Peking at Sun's deathbed and was one of the witnesses to his political will.

After Sun's death in March 1925, the National Government was organized by the Kuomintang at Canton on 1 July 1925, and Chang Jen-chieh was elected to its 16-member State Council. At the Second National Congress of the Kuomintang, Chang was elected to the Central Supervisory Committee, together with Li Shih-tseng, Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei, and Wu Chih-hui. The four friends, of whom Chang was the youngest, were collectively referred to as the "four elder statesmen of the Kuomintang." Chiang Kai-shek was then rising rapidly to power, and Chang Jenchieh, despite his poor health, felt moved to give his young friend effective support by taking' a more active part in the political field. While in France, Chang Jen-chieh had become friendly with Wang Ching-wei (q.v.), and in the growing conflict of interests between Chiang Kai-shek and Wang, he attempted to play a mediating role. In January 1926 Chang made a brief visit to Canton, where, in an attempt to promote friendship, he accompanied Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Ching-wei, and the latter's wife, Ch'en Pi-chun, on a tour ofscenic areas near Whampoa. Chang then returned to Shanghai. When the political situation at Canton became more complex, he was again summoned there. He arrived there on 2 March 1926, two days after the mysterious Chung-shan gunboat incident, which led to Wang Ching-wei's departure from China. Since both Wang and Hu Han-min were then absent from Canton and since T'an Yen-k'ai, who had become acting chairman of the government, was still a comparatively new member of the Kuomintang, Chang Jen-chieh felt obliged to remain at Canton to give moral support to Chiang Kai-shek.

On 19 May 1926, the election of Chang Jenchieh as chairman of the standing committee of the party's Central Executive Committee made him virtually the party chief. On 7 July, however, his resignation from that position was accepted, and Chiang Kai-shek was elected his successor. During the period of the Northern Expedition, when Chiang was in the field conducting military operations, Chang Jen-chieh was made acting chairman of the standing committee. Thus, Chang Jen-chieh held office as acting chairman from July through December 1926, one of the most critical periods in the recent political history of China.

In November of that year, the Kuomintang headquarters and the National Government started to move northward from Canton as the Northern Expedition rapidly won victories. Chang's father died at this time. At the request of Chiang Kai-shek, he postponed a trip to his home district and in mid-December 1926 arrived at Nanchang, where Chiang had his temporary headquarters. When the Northern Expedition forces occupied Chekiang province, Chang Jen-chieh moved to Hangchow to head the provisional provincial government established there. The Kuomintang and National Government leaders then at Wuhan made strong propaganda attacks on Chang, calling him "foolhardy, senile, and corrupt." After reviewing the situation with Chiang Kai-shek, Chang Jen-chieh asked Ch'u Min-i to deliver a message to Wang Ching-wei urging Wang to return to China from Europe.

When Wang Ching-wei arrived at Shanghai on 1 April 1927, a number of members of the Central Supervisory Committee of the Kuomintang met there to discuss measures for dealing with the Communists. Chang Jen-chieh made the trip from Hangchow to attend. The meeting adopted a resolution calling for the ousting of Communists from the Kuomintang. That action precipitated the party purge which began at Shanghai on 12 April and spread to other parts of the country. On 18 April 1927 the Nanking leaders announced the organization of the National Government at Nanking. Previously, the Wuhan leaders had already announced the establishment of the government at Wuhan. Thus, Nanking and Wuhan split. In September, when the Kuomintang leaders at Wuhan also broke with the Communists, a special committee of the Kuomintang was organized to effect the reunification of the various sections of the party—those of Nanking and Wuhan, and also that of Shanghai, which consisted of members of the Western Hills conference group. Chang Jenchieh was a member of this special committee.

Chiang Kai-shek resumed his offices in Nanking in January 1928. In February of that year, the National Government established the National Reconstruction Commission, with Chang Jen-chieh as its chairman. Although the work of that commission did not match the grandiose plans of its originators, nevertheless, under Chang's direction, it had several significant achievements to its credit. The commission's first task was to convert the Nanking power station into a modern plant, a job which was completed in less than a year. The next project completed was the Chihsuyeh power plant on the Nanking-Shanghai railway, which served to promote industrial development and farm irrigation in the area. In November 1928, Chang entered into an agreement with the Radio Corporation of America for an international radio station to be built at Chenju, a suburb of Shanghai. Later, an agreement was reached with the German Siemens Company for the development of a number of domestic radio stations. The commission was responsible for the completion of the Kiangnan railway and the Huai-nan railway, and, in coordination with these lines, the development of coal deposits at Ch'ang-hsing, Huai-nan, Man-t'ou-shan, and I-lo. The commission also operated a bus service between Nanking and Wuhu.

However, with the establishment in October 1931 of the National Economic Council, the responsibilities of the National Reconstruction Commission were limited to the design and guidance of construction projects. The National Economic Council, headed by T. V. Soong, took charge of general development plans. In 1938 the commission was abolished altogether and its remaining functions were delegated to the ministry of economic affairs and the National Resources Commission.

In November 1928 Chang Jen-chieh was appointed governor of his native Chekiang province, and he held that post until January 1930. During that period he devoted particular attention to the expansion of communications facilities in the province. In 1930 he held the West Lake exposition at Hangchow, which was criticized as being extravagant and wasteful. Gradually Chang began to withdraw from active participation in politics. His health was poor; and he had contracted paralysis of the limbs. In January 1932 he heard the news of the Japanese attack on Shanghai while he was having a meal. Suddenly recognizing the true significance of the phrase, "the strong making meat out of the weak," he became a vegetarian and remained one for the rest of his life.

After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in July 1937, Chang went to Hankow. In the autumn of 1938 he left China by way of Hong Kong for Europe. There he visited Switzerland and France, reviving memories of the pleasant life which he had led as a young man in Paris after the turn of the century. When the Second World War broke out, Chang left Europe for the United States and took up residence in New York. In December 1942 he was host to a group of pacifists, who met at his home and advocated peace through world government. All the while his paralysis grew steadily worse, and in 1945 he lost his sight. He died in New York on 3 September 1950. On 16 September, Chiang Kai-shek presided over a memorial service held in Chang's honor at Taipei.

Chang Jen-chieh married twice. He had five daughters by his first wife, Yao Hui. The fourth, Li-ying (Georgette), caused her father much disappointment by marrying Eugene Ch'en (q.v.) in Paris in 1930. After Eugene Ch'en's death, she married Ho Yung-chi, author of The Big Circle, but they were divorced later. His fifth daughter, Ch'ien-ying (Helen), married Dr. Robert K. S. Lim (Lin K'o-sheng, q.v.) in Shanghai in 1946. After Yao Hui died, Chang married Chu I-min. They had five daughters and two sons. After Chang's death, Chu went to live in the United States.

Biography in Chinese

张人傑 ——杰 字:静江

张人杰(1877,9,19—1950,9,8),商人,政府官吏。孙逸仙的早期支持 者,蒋介石的恩人,“国民党四大元老”之一。曾任浙江省主席,南京全国建 设委员会主任。

张人杰生在浙江省吴兴县。他的祖籍原是安徽徽州。张人杰的本乡南浔镇 以出产蚕丝闻名。他的祖辈是富裕的丝商,以慷慨开明知名。张人杰兄弟七 人,他是老二,从小聪颖,八岁时熟读儒家典籍多种,早年精通书法。这个纨 绔子弟,好在闹市中纵马疾驶。

因为家中富裕,张人杰不准备应考晋身仕途。当他十余岁时,他家里已为 他捐得了候补道台的名额。1901年去北京,实补道台。他在北京认识了李石 曾。他们之间的长期友谊,在后来中国革命的历史上留下深刻的印记。两个年 轻人的打算很多,但最迫切的希望是到国外去增长见识。这个希望不久即成现 实。1902年孙宝琦出任驻法公使,张人杰、李石曾即以随员身份一起出国。

张人杰到巴黎后,了解了有关欧洲市场上中国商品的情况。经了解后,他 决定设立一家私人经营的商行,专卖古玩、茶叶、丝绸。他便回国为设立商行 筹集资金。他的主意似乎很吸引人,但很少有人愿冒风险去投资。最后,还是 他父亲张廷甫拿出了三十万元,让他在那里开设通运公司。这家在巴黎的公司 一直是家庭企业,后来在纽约也开设了分公司。

张人杰从事古董商的工作,经常要和知识界人士接触,其中有一些无政府主义者,他因此也读了一些有关无政府主义的书籍,并赞同其中的一些主张。 但由于他是清政府使馆的人员,所以在欧洲的一些激进的中国学生对他的动机 颇为怀疑,很少有人和少公开来往。

1905年,张人杰去伦敦,遇见了吴稚晖,吴稚晖早在上海时就遇到过张人 杰的朋友李石曾,吴稚晖、张人杰一见面就很投机。此后,张、李、吴创立了 一家革命文化出版社“世纪社”,并附有印刷所。

就在这一期间,张人杰遇到了孙逸仙。据孙逸仙回忆,他们是1906年在一 艘法国商船上遇到的。张从财政方面资助了孙逸仙的革命活动。1907年初,孙 逸仙在西贡筹划广东西南地区的起义,两次写信要张人杰筹划经费,张两次回 信,并资助基金六万元。当时孙逸仙的心腹人员胡汉民等还不知张人杰其人, 所以对他的支援颇为诧异。

经张人杰财政上的大力支持,1907年6月在巴黎出版了《新世纪》,大部 分稿件都由吴、李撰写。该杂志出版了一百二十一期,1910年5月21日,因严 重亏损而停刊。

1907年,张人杰主要因健康关系,又经过香港作另一次游历。此时,他 被吸收正式加入同盟会。据国民党所藏文件说,张人杰于1906年在新加坡加入 同盟会,冯自由却认为应于1907年6月回上海途中在香港加入。冯自由是当时 同盟会香港支会的负责人。又据说胡汉民是当时张人杰宣誓的监视人,为了照 顾张人杰的信仰起见,在誓词中“我凭天宣誓”的“天”字取消了。这两个日 期也许并不矛盾,也许张人杰在新加坡支会成立时加入了同盟会,而延迟到 1907年才宣誓。

张人杰对反满事业的慷慨捐赠和《新世纪》的经常开销,成为他的巴黎古 玩商店很大的负担。因此,1908年,张人杰打算在上海开办一所银行,这样, 便可由银行提供资金购置不动产和发行债券筹集资金。他找到一家法国银行愿 为此提供所需信贷。但这个计划没有实现。以后,法国人根据这项设想,在上 海自己开设了一家法国信贷洋行。

1910年夏,张人杰又去巴黎。1911年秋武昌起义,张人杰回国,同时又促 吴稚晖、李石曾回国。1912年1月,孙逸仙当选为临时大总统,准备叫张人杰做财政部长,张坚决谢绝。1913年二次革命失败,孙逸仙改组革命党为中华革 命党,张人杰曾积极支持。孙逸仙任张人杰为财政部长,但张因病不能视事, 同意由次长廖仲恺用他的名义行事。孙逸仙又指派邓泽如为东南亚支部财政部 长。1914年蒋介石加入中华革命党,张人杰是他的监誓人。

1916年袁世凯死后,张人杰在上海的几年中没有积极参加政治活动,但他 是一名忠诚的党员。他在上海法租界的住宅,是党内被追缉的同志们的集会场 所。他是一个干练商人,据说他在上海证券交易所做很大的买卖。就在这一期 间,他和蒋介石交往很密切。1916年,陈其美被刺,张人杰深切感到有代陈其美 来保护蒋介石的责任,张对青年门生蒋介石的影响是很大的。蒋介石非常敬重 张人杰,他在一封信中说:“戴季陶是我的益友,而先生您是我的良师。 ”张 人杰经常给蒋介石以种种支持并经常鼓励他。

1921年,孙逸仙最后决定改组国民党,各地选出党内代表六十人,在1922 年12月开了三次筹备会讨论改组方针,张人杰即是代表之一。1924年1月,国 民党第一次全国代表大会实行改组,张人杰虽未出席会议,但被选为中央执行 委员。中央执行委员会设有地区执行总部,张人杰、汪精卫、叶楚伧、于右任 属上海总部,其所辖地区包括江、浙、皖、赣各省。

同年底,张人杰足病严重,孙逸仙对张人杰的健康十分关怀,在1924年6 月特地写信推荐新由德国回国的医生前去诊治。1925年2月,孙逸仙患癌病, 在北京协和医院用镭素治疗无效,张人杰建议采用中医治疗,未经采纳。张人 杰亲去探望,是孙逸仙临终前签具遗嘱的目击人。

1925年8月,孙逸仙去世。7月1日国民党在广州组成国民政府,张人杰 当选为十六名政务委员之一。国民党第二次全国代表大会中,张人杰与李石 曾、蔡元培、吴稚晖等人被选为中央监察委员。此四人被称为“国民党四大元 老”,其中张人杰年纪最小。蒋介石的权势很快增高,张人杰不管自己体弱多 病,深感到必须给以有力支持,因而积极参预政界活动。张人杰在法国时就和 汪精卫结下了友谊,因而当蒋汪之间纠纷日增时,张人杰力图从中调解。1926 年1月,张人杰去广州,和蒋介石、汪精卫夫妇一起,到黄埔风景区游览,以 改善他们间的关系,然后回上海。后来广州的政局更为复杂,他又一再向他们 呼吁,并于1926年3月2日又去广州,正是离奇的中山舰事件发生后两天(译 注:原文如此,应作3月20日)。汪精卫被迫出国。汪精卫、胡汉民都不在广 州,谭延闿代国民政府主席,因为他资历较浅,所以张人杰认为需要他自己亲 自留在广州从精神上支持蒋介石。

1926年5月19日,张人杰被选为中央执行委员会常务委员会主席,成为实 际上的国民党领袖。7月7日,张人杰辞职,蒋介石继任。北伐期间,蒋介石 率部进军,7月至12月由张人杰暂代主席职务,这是近代中国政治史上最危急 的时期之一。

当年11月北伐胜利进军,国民党总部和国民政府逐步由广州向北转移。此 时,张人杰的父亲去世,张人杰应蒋介石之请,取消了回原籍的计划,于1929 年12月中旬到了蒋介石在南昌的临时总司令部。北伐军攻占浙江,张人杰去杭 州当浙江临时省政府主席。武汉的国民党和国民政府的要人强烈攻击张人杰, 说他“勇而无谋,老气横秋,腐败无能”。张人杰与蒋介石硏究了当时局势, 请褚民谊催促汪精卫从欧洲回国。
1927年4月1日,汪精卫回到上海,在那里和一批国民党中央监察委员商 议对付共产党的办法,张人杰从杭州赶来参加。会议决定把共产党员驱逐出国 民党。这是1927年4月12日开始在上海及其他地区清党的预兆。1927年4月18 日,南京国民政府宣布成立。在这之前,武汉也宣布成立了国民政府。这样, 宁汉分裂了。9月(译注:原文如此,应作7月),武汉政府中的国民党领袖 人物和共产党破裂。接着,组成国民党特别委员会,使宁、汉、沪(包括西山 会议派)三派重新统一。张人杰是特别委员会委员。

1928年1月,蒋介石在南京恢复原职,2月,国民政府又新成立全国建设 委员会,以张人杰为主席。建设委员会的成绩和它原定的庞大计划是远不相称 的,但是在张人杰的主持下,也颇做了一些工作。建设委员会第一项工作是改 建南京发电厂,不到一年完成。又在京沪路沿线的戚墅堰新建发电厂,以利工 业发展和农田灌溉。1928年11月和美国无线电公司订立合同,在上海近郊真如 建立国际广播电台,不久又和德国西门子公司订立合同以发展国内广播事业。 委员会筹建了江南、淮南铁路及其沿线的淮南、马鞍山、长兴等煤矿,又开办了宁芜长途公共汽车。

1931年10月,成立全国经济委员会。建设委员会的职能限于建设工程的计 划和指导。以宋子文为首的全国经济委员会则负责全面发展计划。1938年建设 委员会取消,它的职权分别隶属于经济部和全国资源委员会。

1928年11月,张人杰被任命为其原籍浙江省的省主席。他担任省主席的职 务直到1930年1月。他在任期内把主要精力用在发展全省的交通事业。1930年 他筹办杭州西湖博览会。有人批评他挥霍浪费。

张人杰后来四肢瘫痪,渐渐离开了政治活动。1932年1月他听到日军进袭 上海的消息,那时正在吃饭,他突然发觉了 “弱肉强食”这句谚语的真谛,从 此以后,他终生成为素食主义者。1937年7月,中日战争爆发,他去汉口。 1938年秋他经香港去欧洲,游历了瑞士、法国,重温本世纪初在巴黎时青年时 期的欢乐。第二次世界大战爆发,张人杰从欧洲去美国,寓居于纽约。1942年 12月,一群和平主义者在他家里开会,向各国政府呼吁和平。张人杰的瘫痪程 度愈来愈严重,终于在1945年失明,1950年9月3日死在纽约。9月16日蒋介 石在台北亲自主持他的追悼会。

张人杰两次结婚,他的前妻姚慧生了五个女儿。四女张荔英(乔治达) 1930年在巴黎和陈友仁结婚,因此张人杰对她深为失望。陈友仁死后,又和 《大轮回》的作者何云志结婚,后又离婚。五女倩英1946年在上海和林可胜结 婚。姚慧死后,张人杰和朱逸民结婚,生有五女两子。张人杰死后,朱到美国 定居。

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