Xu Shuzheng

Hsü Shu-cheng (4 November 1880-30 December 1925), held many important offices in Peking as the most powerful deputy of Tuan Ch'i-jui (q.v.) in the period from 1912 to 1920 and co-founder of the Anfu Club. His actions in extending Chinese authority in Outer Mongolia after 1918 turned the Mongols against China and were a chief […]

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Wang Yintai

Wang Yin-t'ai (14 July 1888-15 December 1961), German-trained lawyer who was counselor of the law drafting bureau at Peking in 1914-19. He later held a variety of positions at Peking, becoming minister of foreign affairs in 1927. During the Sino-Japanese war, he held office in the Japanese-sponsored government in north China. Born in Shaohsing, Ghekiang, […]

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Zhang Zuolin

Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 T. Yü-t'ing 雨亭 Chang Tso-lin (1873-June 1928), known as the Old Marshal, military leader who consolidated control of the Northeast. He began as the leader of a local army in Fengtien and rose to rule Manchuria as a virtually autonomous state from 1919 to his death. After 1924, Chang extended his control […]

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