Zhang Lisheng

Name in Chinese
Name in Wade-Giles
Chang Li-sheng
Related People

Biography in English

Chang Li-sheng (24 May 1900-), Kuomintang leader and government official, was director of the party's organization department in 1936-37 and minister of the interior from 1944 until May 1948; in Taiwan, he served as vice president of the Executive Yuan and then as ambassador to Japan.

Lot'ing hsien in Chihli (later Hopei) province was the birthplace of Chang Li-sheng. The area is south of the Great Wall and borders on the Gulf of Chihli. Although the traditional occupation of the family was farming, Chang's father, Chang Sheng-wu, often joined groups of traders traveling to Manchuria. During these trips the elder Chang witnessed atrocities perpetrated by the Japanese in the Northeastern provinces and was once imprisoned by them for anti-Japanese acts. The boy, after hearing his father's reports of these trips, developed deep feelings of animosity toward the Japanese.

Although the family was in straitened circumstances, they managed to send Chang Lisheng to school at the age of eight sui and, later, to the higher primary school operated by Lot'ing hsien. His father died at that time, but with financial aid from friends and relatives, Chang was able to continue his studies. In 1917 he enrolled in the Nankai School at Tientsin, operated by Chang Po-ling (q.v.) . Wu Chih-hui (q.v.), the prominent classical scholar and revolutionary, was teaching Chinese at the nearby Tangshan School ofRailways and Mines. Chang Li-sheng, who held Wu in high esteem, secured an introduction to Wu Chih-hui and visited him at every opportunity. Under Wu's influence, Chang resolved to go abroad to study in Europe. He therefore left Nankai to enter the preparatory department of the law school of Ch'ao-yang College at Peking, studying European history and French.

In the summer of 1920, with funds provided by friends and relatives, Chang Li-sheng left for France. After preparatory courses, he entered the University of Paris in 1922 to study sociology and economics. In Paris he joined the Kuomintang, and in 1924 he was elected to the executive committee of the French branch of the party, then the largest Kuomintang organization in Europe. That was the period of the first political alliance between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communists; one of Chang's fellow committee members was Chou En-lai, and another associate was Li Fu-ch'un. Even at that time, Chang came into constant conflict with the two young Communists.

Chang Li-sheng returned to China in 1925 and took a teaching job at Chungshan College in Shanghai. Toward the end of 1926, when the Northern Expedition reached Wuhan, Chang went there and became a secretary in the political department of the Tenth Army. Later in 1927, when Shao Yuan-ch'ung became mayor of Hangchow, Chang went there to serve as chief secretary of the municipal government. The purge of the Communists was then being carried out, and because of Chang's record in opposing the Communists in France, he was made a member of the guidance committee of the Nanking municipal headquarters of the Kuomintang. He attended the Third National Congress of the Kuomintang in March 1929 as a delegate and made a fine impression on Ch'en Kuo-fu, then head of the organization department in the central party headquarters. Ch'en Kuo-fu appointed Chang a secretary in the organization department. In 1931, at the Fourth National Congress the Kuomintang, he was elected an alternate member of the Central Executive Committee. In October 1932 he was appointed a member of the Hopei provincial council and was placed in charge of party affairs in north China. He was then only 32 sui. At the Fifth National Congress in November 1935 he became a full member of the Central Executive Committee, and in February 1936 he succeeded Ch'en Li-fu (q.v.) as chief of the organization department, the most important branch of the Central Executive Committee.

After the Sino-Japanese war began, Ch'en Ch'eng was appointed director of the political department of the military council in January 1938. Chang Li-sheng was relieved of his duties as head of the organization department to become secretary general of the political department. Later, he became a deputy director. Chang held that post until September 1940, when he relinquished it at the same time that Ch'en Ch'eng left the post of director. Chang then was appointed secretary general of the Supreme National Defense Council's newly created party and government work examination committee for the promotion of administrative efficiency. He held that post for two years.

In December 1942 Chang was appointed secretary general of the Executive Yuan on the recommendation of H. H. K'ung, then vice president of the yuan. That appointment marked the beginning of Chang's direct participation in government administration. He was ex officio secretary general of the National General Mobilization Council. He remained in the Executive Yuan for three years and won a good reputation for his sense of responsibility and his capacity to coordinate the various governmental departments at Chungking. When T. V. Soong became president of the Executive Yuan in December 1944, Chang was appointed minister of the interior. He continued to hold his position as secretary general for a few months until Chiang Monlin was appointed his successor. Chang Ch'un replaced T. V. Soong as president of the Executive Yuan in March 1947. There were several ministerial changes, but Chang Li-sheng remained as minister of the interior until the promulgation of the new constitution in May 1948. Then he became vice president of the Executive Yuan.

In his four years as minister of the interior, Chang Li-sheng, in addition to his normal duties, supervised the holding of the elections to the National Assembly and to the Control Yuan and the popular elections. He also undertook the preparation of census laws and regulations and the planning ofa nation-wide census. These laws and regulations were published in 1946, and a census bureau was established in March 1947. Unfortunately, because of the developing civil war in China, the planned census could not be carried out. These laws, however, did provide the basis for the census taken in Taiwan in September 1956.

In spite of the non-cooperation of the Chinese Communists, the various elections were held, and the National Assembly met on schedule to adopt the new constitution and to enforce constitutional government. Chang Li-sheng became vice president of the Executive Yuan. This cabinet fell in November 1948, however, and in the new cabinet of Sun Fo, Chang Li-sheng became minister without portfolio. When the Communist military forces swept south over the mainland, he moved to Taiwan.

In August 1949, Ch'en Ch'eng, then governor of Taiwan, appointed Chang Li-sheng to serve as chairman of the Taiwan Provincial Autonomy Research Institute so that he could use his experience in the formulation of plans and regulations for the enforcement of local autonomy in Taiwan province. When Ch'en Ch'eng was appointed president of the Executive Yuan in March 1950, Chang Li-sheng was again made vice president of the yuan. He remained in that post for four years until June 1954, when Ch'en Ch'eng relinquished the premiership on his election as vice president of the republic. From August 1954 through 1958 Chang served as secretary general of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. In 1959 he was appointed Chinese ambassador to Japan and held that post for four years. He returned to Taiwan in September 1963, when official relations between Taipei and Tokyo were seriously strained, and retired from official life.

Biography in Chinese

张厉生 字:少武

张厉生(1900.5.24—)国民党首领人物,政府官员,1936—37年国 民党组织部长,1944—1948年5月任内政部长。在台湾曾任行政院副院长. 驻日大使之职。

张厉生,河北乐亭入,该地在长城以南,渤海之滨,虽世代务农,但父亲 张省吾常去东北经商,目睹日本人在东北的暴行,曾因反抗日本人而被捕入 狱。张厉生童年时听到父亲诉说去东北经商时的经历,因此对日本人的敌忾很 深。

张厉生八岁时虽家庭经济困窘,父亲仍送他上学,不久又进乐亭高小。此 时他父亲死去,张厉生由亲友接济继续上学。 1917年进了张伯苓创办的天津南 开学校。当时,名学者、革命家吴稚晖在附近的唐山路矿学校教中文,张厉生 对他深为敬仰,经人介绍常前去拜访。他受到吴稚晖的影响,决定去欧洲留 学。事先,他离开南开入北京朝阳学院法科预备班,学习欧洲史和法语。

1920年夏,张厉生由亲友资助去法国,经补习后,于1922年进巴黎大学, 学社会经济学。他在巴黎加入国民党,1924年选入巴黎分部执行委员会,那时 巴黎分部是国民党在欧洲的最大组织。当时是第一次国共合作时期,在执行委 员中有周恩来和李富春。但在那时,他已经常和这两个年轻共产党人发生争执。

1925年张厉生回国,在上海中山大学教书。1926年底,北伐军到达武汉, 张去那里担任第十军政治部秘书。1927年底,邵元冲任杭州市长,张厉生去杭 州任市政府秘书长。清党时,张厉生因在法国时有反共经历,所以调到南京市 党部任监察委员。1929年3月出席国民党第三次全国代表大会,给国民党中央 党部组织部长陈果夫以极好印象,任他为组织部秘书。1931年国民党召开第四 次全国代表大会时,张当选为中央执行委员会候补委员。1932年10月,任河北 省政府委员,负责华北党务,那时他三十二岁。1935年11月,国民党第五次全 国代表大会中选为中央执行委员会正式委员,1936年2月继陈立夫任中央执行 委员会的重要机构组织部部长。

中日战争开始后,陈诚于1938年1月任军事委员会政治部主任,张厉生离 组织部而任政治部秘书长,后为副主任,一直到1940年9月。陈诚辞职时,张 厉生亦离职,任最高国防委员会为提高行政效率而设立的党政考核委员会秘书 长,在职两年。

1942年12月,张厉生由行政院副院长孔祥熙提名任行政院秘书长,从此 后,他直接参与了政府行政工作,并成为全国总动员会的当然秘书长。他在行 政院三年,因工作负责又善于调处在重庆的政府各部之间的关系而很有声望。 1944年12月,宋子文任行政院长,张厉生任内政部长,但继续担任秘书长之职 数月,后来由蒋梦麟接任。1947年8月,张群代宋子文为行政院长,各部均有 变动。但张厉生仍任内政部长直到1948年5月新宪法公布。然后他当了行政院副院长。

他在四年内政部长任内,除经常工作外,又监督国民代表大会、监察院和 普选的选举事项。他又草拟了人口普查法规,这些法规在1946年公布。他还担 负了全国人口普查的准备工作,在1947年8月设立了人口普査局。但因国内战 争关系,未能实行。但1956年9月台湾的人口普查即以此为依据。

中国共产党虽未参加国民代表大会,但各项选举照样进行,大会如期召 开,通过新宪法,按宪法组成政府,张厉生任行政院副院长。1948年11月,内 阁倒台,由孙科另组新内阁,张厉生任不管部长。当中国共产党军队打到南方 时,张厉生迁往台湾。

1949年8月,陈诚任台湾省长,张厉生任台湾省立自治研究院主席,他可 以凭以往经验规划台湾省内的地方自治。1950年8月,陈诚任行政院长,张厉 生任行政院副院长,一直到1954年6月当陈诚选为副总统离去行政院长职务时 为止。从1954年8月到1958年之间,张一直担任国民党中央执行委员会秘书长 的职务。1959年后任驻日大使四年。1963年9月回台湾,当时台北与东京间官 方关系非常紧张,他从此退出了官场活动。

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