Chang Ch'i-yün T. Hsiao-fen
Chang Ch'i-yün (1901-), scholar and official, taught history and geography for many years at National Central and Chekiang universities. He also wrote on the modernization of China. He served in Taiwan in such positions as secretary general of Chiang Kai-shek's office and minister of education.
A native of Yinhsien, Chekiang, Chang Ch'i-yün came from a family of scholars ; both his great-grandfather and grandfather earned the chü-jen degree. His father, Chang Chao-lin, was a student of local history in Chekiang and devoted much energy to the promotion of village education and water conservation schemes. After several years of old-style schooling, Chang Ch'i-yün entered the Fourth Higher Primary School located at the county seat in 1913. Two years later he enrolled at the Provincial Fourth Middle School where he came under the influence of several remarkable teachers. Ch'en K'ang-fu, who taught language and who had been a student of Chang's grandfather and a teacher of Chang's father, directed the youth's attention to education as a career. Hung Yun-hsiang, his history teacher, and Ts'ai Ho-k'eng, his geography teacher, emphasized the interrelationship between history and geography, the two subjects which became Chang's life-long interest.
In the summer of 1919, at the height of the May Fourth Movement, Chang was sent to Shanghai by the Ningpo Student Association to attend the organizational meeting of the All- China Federation of Student Associations. It was probably the first time Chang took part in politics. But it was also the year of his graduation, and he soon left Chekiang to matriculate at the Nanking Higher Normal School, a government supported institution of college level which was tuition-free. There a history professor, Liu I-cheng (q.v.), took a special interest in Chang and prevented him from failing the entrance requirements because of physical frailty. Chang studied philosophy under another well-known scholar, Liu Po-ming (1887-1923), founder of the scholarly Hsueh-heng journal. Chang proved to be an excellent student, and when Liang Ch'i-ch'ao lectured at the Normal School in 1922, he bestowed generous praise upon one of the young man's essays. Chang was graduated in June 1923, the same year that the Normal School was reorganized as Southeast University.
After graduation, Chang Ch'i-yün contracted with the Commercial Press in Shanghai to write a series of geography texts for middle school students. The assignment, which took four years to complete, gave him excellent opportunity to read widely in the firm's well-stocked Oriental library. When Southeast University became National Central University in 1927, following the establishment of the National Government at Nanking, Chang was appointed instructor in geography at his alma mater on the recommendation of Liu I-cheng. He remained at the university for the next ten years and became a full professor. In addition to producing a number of books and translations in the field of geography, he also found time during this period to travel extensively in Chekiang (autumn of 1929), Manchuria (summer of 1931), and the northwestern provinces (autumn of 1935 to summer of 1936). The accounts of his travels published in the Ti-li hsueh-pao [journal of geography] received favorable comment from V. K. Ting, the noted geologist and secretary general of the Academia Sinica. When the Council of the Academia Sinica was inaugurated in 1935, Chang was elected by the participating national universities as one of the councillors. At the age of 35, he was then the youngest councillor and the only one who had never studied abroad.
In the summer of 1936, Chang left Nanking for Hangchow, where he took up a new appointment as chairman of the newly established department of history and geography of National Chekiang University. A year later, Japan invaded China. To avoid enemy destruction, the faculty and student body of the university migrated inland, where they found refuge successively at Chien-te, Chekiang; I-shan, Kwangsi; and Tsunyi, Kweichow. In August 1939 the university, then in Kwangsi, appointed him director of its newly founded research institute of history and geography. In August 1940, when the university was finally located at Tsunyi, Chang, together with several members of the faculty of the college of arts, founded the journal Ssu-hsiang yü shih-tai [thought and the age] which served as a forum for discussion of the problems of China's reconstruction and the interchange of Chinese and Western cultures. In February 1943, the Office of Cultural Relations of the United States Department of State invited six Chinese professors, who had been nominated by the presidents of various Chinese universities, to visit the United States. Chang was among the group who made the trip. They left Chungking on 6 June 1943 and arrived at Miami, Florida, on 21 June, traveling by way of India, Africa, and Brazil. While in the United States, Chang spent most of his time doing research on geopolitics at Harvard's Widener Library. He also visited various cities on the West Coast and the Eastern Seaboard. An interview with President Isaiah Bowman of The Johns Hopkins University in November 1944 was remembered with pleasure by Chang; they discussed China's role as a sea as well as a land power in centuries past.
Chang returned to China in September 1945. After Japan had been defeated, Chekiang University returned to its Hangchow campus. Chang soon was promoted to be dean of the college of arts, succeeding Mei Kuang-ti (q.v.), who died in December 1945. Chang organized the materials that the research institute of history and geography had gathered at Tsunyi and published them in May 1948 as Tsun-yi hsin chih [a new gazetteer of Tsunyi]. This book embodied a new concept for compiling local history. He also succeeded in purchasing the rare Sung editions preserved in the Chiayeh-t'ang library of the Liu family of Nan-hsin and the Yü-hai-lou library of the Sun family of Jui-an for the research institute, which greatly augmented its collection of historical and geographical studies.
Meanwhile, the Chinese civil war was approaching its climax. In June 1949 Chang left the mainland as the Communist forces advanced toward Hangchow. This time there was no migration of universities. In Taiwan Chang left the academic world to become secretary general of the office of the tsung-ts'ai [party leader]. In July 1949 he accompanied Chiang Kai-shek to Baguio to confer with President Elpidio Quirino of the Philippines, a meeting which led to a joint public declaration against Communism. In August of that year he accompanied Chiang Kai-shek to Korea to call on President Syngman Rhee; there the two political leaders reiterated their firm anti- Communist stand. When Chiang Kai-shek formally resumed the presidency of the Republic of China on 1 March 1950, the office of the tsung-ts'ai was abolished, and Chang Ch'i-yün was reassigned to the directorship of the propaganda department of the Kuomintang. In July 1950 he became the secretary general of the central reorganization commission of the Kuomintang. In October 1952 he was elected to the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang at the Seventh National Congress and served concurrently as its secretary general. Thus, in only a few years, Chang attained the top posts in the party hierarchy.
In the spring of 1954 Chang was appointed minister of education in the cabinet of O. K. Yui (Yu Hung-chun, q.v.). During his term of office, which extended from May 1954 to July 1958, Chang reestablished National Cheng-chih University, Tsinghua University, and Chiaotung University in Taiwan; elevated Taiwan Provincial Normal College to university status; restored the National Central Library; and founded the National Historical Museum and the National Taiwan Science Hall. Seeking to move toward free and compulsory middle school education for the youth of Taiwan, Chang in September 1956 eliminated entrance examinations for primary school graduates of the public school system who wished to enter public middle schools in Hsin-chu hsien. It was a cautious experiment, since the fees were retained and middle school education was voluntary. Unfortunately, because of the inadequacy of funds, buildings, equipment, and teachers for the increased enrollment, the experiment aroused more adverse than favorable response. In July 1958, Chang resigned from the ministry and the experiment was quietly discontinued. In the fall of that year he took over the directorship of the Research Institute of National Defense, whose function is similar to that of the National War College in the United States. In the early 1960's he established the Institute for Advanced Chinese Studies at Yangmingshan.
Chang Ch'i-yün's major publications include the following titles: Chung-kuo min-tsu chih [records of the Chinese people], Chung-kuo chingchi ti-li [economic geography of China], Chechiang sheng shih-ti chi-yao [outline of the history and geography of Chekiang province], Chunghua min-kuo shih-kang [outline history of the Chinese republic], Hsin chiao-yü lun-chi [essays on the new education], Chung-hua wu-ch 'ien-nien shih [five thousand years of Chinese history], Chung-kuo ti-li-hsueh yen-chiu [studies in Chinese geography] , and others. He was also the general editor of the Kuo-fu ch'üan-shu [works of the national father], a collection of Sun Yat-sen's principal theoretical and political writings published in 1960 in Taiwan.
张其昀（1901——）,学者和官吏。他在国立中央大学和浙江大学教授历 史、地理多年。他还著有讨论中国近代化问题的著作。他在台湾任蒋介石办公 室秘书长，又是教育部长。
张其昀浙江鄞县人，出身诗书门第，他的曾祖和祖父是举人，他的父亲张 绍林从事研究浙江地方志，致力于改革乡村教育和水利建设。张其昀受了几年 旧式教育后，1913年进了县城的第四高小，两年后又进了省立第四中学，深受 几个有名的教师的影响。语文教师陈广甫原是他祖父的学生、父亲的老师，他 教导张其昀当以教育为毕生的事业。历史教师洪云祥和地理教师蔡和康，在教 学工作中强调历史和地理的相互关系，这两门学科此后就成为张其昀毕生的兴 趣了。
1919年夏，在“五四”运动高潮中，张由宁波学生联合会推举去上海参加 全国学生联合会的会议。这可能是张第一次参加政治活动。那年恰好他毕业， 他离开浙江进入南京高等师范学堂，这是一所政府主办的具有大学水平的免费 学校。那里的史学教授柳诒征对他特别注意，设法疏通了因张身体太差而不准 入学的阻碍。张又从另一个名学者刘伯明（1887——1923）学习哲学，刘是学 术杂志《学衡》的创办入。张是一个优秀的学生，1922年梁启超到那里讲学， 对这个青年人的一篇论文曾大加赞赏。1923年6月张毕业，同年该校改组为东 南大学。
毕业后，张其昀应上海商务印书馆之聘编写中学地理教本。为期四年完成 的工作，给他良好的机会遍读商务印书馆附设的藏书丰富的东方图书馆的书 籍。1927年南京成立国民政府，东南大学改组为国立中央大学，张其昀由柳诒 征介绍，当了母校的地理讲师，在校十年以后升为教授。在这期间，他除了著 译有关地理学的著作外，又到浙江（1929年秋）、东北（1931年夏〉、西北 （1935年秋到1936年夏）旅行。旅行见闻刊载于《地理学报》上，获得著名地质学家中央研究院丁文江的好评。1935年中央研究院院务委员会成立，参加院 务委员会的国立大学推举张其昀为院务委员之一，那时他三十五岁，是院务委 员会中最年轻而又没有出过国的委员。
1936年夏，他离开南京，去杭州就任国立浙江大学史地系主任。一年后， 日本进犯中国，该校师生为了避免遭受破坏，向内地迁移，先后在浙江建德、 广西宜山、贵州遵义停留。1939年8月浙江大学迁至广西，张其昀就任该校新 设的史地研究所主任。1940年8月，浙江大学在遵义定居后，他和文学院的一 些同事创办了《思想与时代》杂志，作为讨论复兴中国、交流中西文化等问题 的论坛。1943年2月，美国国务院文化交流处请中国各大学校长推举六名中国 教授访问美国，张其昀即为其中一人。1943年6月6日离开重庆，经印度、非 洲、巴西，6月21日到达佛罗里达州迈阿密。他在美国期间，大部分时间在哈 佛大学的怀德纳图书馆研究地缘政治学。他还访问了西岸和东海滨的一些城 市。1944年11月张其昀和霍普斯金大学校长鲍曼的会见，给他留下愉快的印 象，他们谈论几世纪前中国作为海上强国和陆上强国的情况。
1945年9月，张返回中国。日本失败后，浙江大学又迁回杭州旧址。张其 昀继1945年12月去世的梅光迪而成为文学院院长。他整理了史地研究所在遵义 收集的资料，1948年5月出版了《遵义新志》，对地方志的编纂提出了新的概 念。他为研究所收购了南浔刘氏嘉业堂和瑞安孙氏越海楼的宋版珍本典籍，丰 富了史地研究资料的收藏。
当时中国内战正进入最激烈阶段，1949年6月共产党军队向杭州进军时， 张其昀离开了大陆，这一次浙江大学则并未迁移。张在台湾脱离了学术界而充 当了总裁办公室的秘书长。1949年7月，他随同蒋介石去菲律宾博利脑和总统 奎利诺会谈，发表了联合反共宣言。同年8月，又随同蒋介石去南朝鲜访问总 统李承晚，蒋、李两人重申坚决反共的立场。1950年8月1日，蒋介石正式任总 统，总裁办公室撤消，张其昀改任国民党宣传部长。1950年7月任国民党中央 改组委员会秘书长，1952年10月国民党第七次全国代表大会上选入中央执行委 员会并兼任秘书长。几年之内，张升到了国民党核心集团中的高级地位。
1954年春，俞鸿钧组阁，张任教育部长。从1954年5月到1958年7月他在职期间，在台湾重建诚志大学、清华大学、交通大学，改组台湾省师范学院为 大学，恢复国立中央图书馆，又建立了历史博物馆和台湾科学馆。为了推行台 湾青年免费义务中学教育，1956年9月在兴中县试行国民小学毕业生免试升入 公立中学。这是一项担风险的实验，因为中学教育是义务的，需要一笔费用。
入校学生增多，而经费、校舍和教师不足，因此对这一项措施的责难比赞助的 还多。1958年7月，张辞去教育部长之职，这项措施也就无声无息地中断了。同年秋，他任国防研究院院长，它类似美国的军事研究院。I960年初，他又在 阳明山创办了国学研究所。
张其昀的主要著作有下列几种：《中国民族志》、《中国经济地理》、《浙江省史地纪要》、《中华民国史纲》、《新教育论集》、《中华五千年 史》、《中国地理学硏究》等。他又是《国父丛书》的总编辑，收集了孙逸仙 主要的理论和政治著作，已于I960年在台湾出版。