Biography in English

Tsou T'ao-fen (5 November 1895-24 July 1944), journalist known for his editorship (1926-33) of the Sheng-huo chou-kan [life weekly] and for his leadership in the national salvation movement. After working at Chungking in support of the Chinese war effort, he went to Hong Kong in 1941 because of difficulties with Kuomintang press censorship. He spent some time in the Communist-held areas of Kiangsu, but went to Shanghai in March 1943 because of illness. Although his native place was Yuchiang, Kiangsi, Tsou T'ao-fen was born in Foochow, Fukien. He was the eldest of six children born to Tsou Kuei-chen, a scholar-official who worked in various salt bureaus in Fukien and, after 1915, in the ministry of finance in Peking. At the age of five, Tsou T'ao-fen began to study the Chinese classics with a private tutor, and in 1910 he entered the Foochow Engineerng School. In 1912 his father, who wanted him to pursue an engineering career, sent him to the elementary school attached to Nanyang College in Shanghai. Within a year he had been promoted to its middle school, where he spent four years. In 1919, having had a one-year course in electrical engineering at Nanyang College, he decided to transfer to St. John's University as an English major.

After being graduated from St. John's in 1921, Tsou T'ao-fen worked as an English secretary in the Hou-sheng Textile Factory and the Shanghai Cotton Stock Exchange. He also taught English at a middle school sponsored by the YMCA. It was his ambition to become a journalist, and in 1922 he was appointed director of the editorial board of the China Vocational Education Society, headed by Huang Yen-p'ei. He also taught English at the China Vocational Institute and participated in other vocational guidance activities.

In October 1926 Tsou T'ao-fen became the editor of the Sheng-huo chou-kan [life weekly] which the China Vocational Education Society had founded a year earlier. He transformed the magazine, which had dealt primarily with vocational guidance, into a forum on social and political issues. He even created a column called "Hsin-hsiang" [mail box] to answer readers' questions. The effect of these changes was testified to by its rapid increase in circulation from 2,800 in 1925 to 80,000 in 1930. This expansion compelled Tsou to relinquish his posts as general manager and an editor of the Shih-shih hsin-pao. In October 1930 the Shenghuo chou-kan set up a department to supply books and periodicals to its readers. In July 1932 this department was reorganized as the Sheng-huo shu-tien [life publications company], and by the late 1930's it had 55 branches in major cities of China. Tsou ran both the magazine and the publications company on a cooperative basis, giving additional benefits and incentive to his staff.

At the time of the Japanese attack on Mukden in September 1931, Tsou T'ao-fen strongly criticized the conciliatory policy of the Kuomintang and urged strong resistance to the Japanese. His readers enthusiastically responded, and circulation jumped to 120,000. Under Tsou's direction, the magazine launched a fund-raising campaign in November, to which its readers contributed some China $129,000. The money was sent to Ma Chan-shan (q.v.), who was fighting the Japanese in Manchuria. In 1932 Tsou undertook another fund-raising campaign, this time in support of the Nineteenth Route Army {see Chiang Kuang-nai, Ts'ai T'ing-k'ai) . He also ordered his staff to organize a hospital for Chinese soldiers wounded at Shanghai. That year, the popularity of the Sheng-huo chou-k'an reached its pinnacle, with a circulation of 155,000. The Kuomintang began to impose censorship on the magazine. In January 1933 Tsou joined the China League for the Protection of Civil Rights (Chung-kuo min-ch'üan pao-chang t'ung-meng), which denounced the methods of the Kuomintang. He soon became a member of its executive committee. His activities soon placed him in a position where he stood in danger of reprisal. At the urging of friends, he left China. The Sheng-huo chou-k'an was closed by the Kuomintang on 16 December.

After leaving Shanghai, Tsou T'ao-fen went to Italy, Switzerland, and France. In September 1933 he arrived in London. He remained there until February 1934, when he went to Belgium, Holland, and Germany. In July, he went to the Soviet Union, where he attended the summer session at Moscow University and toured southern Russia and the Crimea. He then returned to London before going on to the United States, which he toured in May-July 1935. In August, he returned to Shanghai. During his travels, Tsou paid close attention to the social and political conditions of the countries which he visited, and he recorded his impressions in a series of articles which he sent back to China. These articles later were collected and published: P'ing-tsung chi-yü [words from the wandering duckweed], a three-volume work on his travels in Europe and Russia; and P'ing-tsung i-yü [reminiscences of the wandering duckweed], on his experiences in the United States. He was more favorably impressed by the Soviet Union than by Western Europe and the United States. The changes that had taken place in his thinking during his trip soon were reflected by the new weekly which he started in November 1935, the Ta-chung sheng-huo [life of the masses]. Its aims were "achievement of national liberation, eradication of feudal remnants, and suppression of individualism." He continued to call for a united front against the Japanese.

In December 1935 Tsou T'ao-fen was elected to the executive committee of the Shanghai National Salvation Association, and in January 1936 he joined a group of more than 200 writers, newspapermen, and lawyers in forming the Cultural Workers' National Salvation Association. On 31 May 1936 he was elected to the executive committee of the All-China Federation of National Salvation Associations. The greater part of his work on behalf of the movement was carried on through the Ta-chung sheng-huo, which, however, was banned by the Kuomintang on 29 February 1936, after having reached a circulation of 120,000. In March, he established another weekly called Yung-sheng [eternal life], which was forced to suspend publication in June. He then went to Hong Kong, where, on 7 June 1936, he founded the Sheng-huo jih-pao [life daily]. Because of technical and financial difficulties, he was forced to discontinue publication after only 55 days. He returned to Shanghai and started publishing the Sheng-huo hsing-ch'i-k''an [Sunday life], but it was banned by the Kuomintang in December.

Tsou T'ao-fen joined with Chang Nai-ch'i, Shen Chun-ju and T'ao Hsing-chih (qq.v.), who also were leaders of the national salvation movement, in publishing a petition in July 1936 entitled "A Number of Essential Conditions and Minimum Demands for a United Resistance to Invasion." It was addressed to all Chinese political parties, but in particular to the Kuomintang and Chiang Kai-shek. It called for the cessation of Kuomintang-Communist civil war and a united front against Japan. This document and Tsou's other pronouncements led to his arrest in Shanghai on 23 November 1936. Apprehended at the same time were Li Kungp'u, Wang Tsao-shih, Sha Ch'ien-li, Shen Chunju, Chang Nai-ch'i, and Shih Liang, all of whom were members of the executive committee of the All-China Federation of National Salvation Associations. The charges were "Communist behavior" and "suspicion of having instigated a strike in the Japanese-owned cotton mills." Because of insufficient evidence, they were released on bail, but within 24 hours they were rearrested on charges of having committed "acts with intent to injure the Chinese republic." They were handed over to the bureau of public safety of the Chinese municipal government in Shanghai. On 4 December, they were escorted to Soochow for trial before the Kiangsu provincial high court. In spite of efforts to keep the arrests and trial proceedings secret, the news spread quickly and aroused widespread shock and indignation. The group became known as the ch'i chün-tzu [seven gentlemen]. The trial began in April 1937, but it was suspended and the seven were released on bail after the Sino-Japanese war began that July.

During the months of imprisonment that followed his arrest, Tsou T'ao-fen made use of the enforced leisure to set down his memoirs in a volume entitled Ching-li [experiences]. It was also at this time that he wrote the last few chapters of P'itig-tsung i-yü and completed the Tu-shu ou-i [miscellaneous translations]. All of these were published by the Sheng-huo shu-tien between April and July 1937. On being released, Tsou and his associates went to see Chiang Kai-shek to pledge their support to the war effort. When the Japanese occupied Shanghai, Tsou left with Ho Hsiang-ning, Kuo Mo-jo (qq.v.), and others and joined the National Government in Wuhan, later following it to Chungking. Tsou became a member of the People's Political Council, but did not accept a position in the government. In the council, he presented a number of motions requesting freedom of the press and abolition of censorship. He centered his efforts on "whipping up popular enthusiasm for the war" through his new magazines: K'ang-chan [war of resistance], also known for a time as Ti-k'ang [resistance], which had been published in Shanghai and which then moved its headquarters to Hankow; and its successor, Ch'uan-min k'ang-chan [total war of resistance], published in Hankow and later in Chungking. Tsou also made a number of trips to the front to bolster the morale of the troops.

As the Kuomintang reinstituted a policy of censorship, Tsou T'ao-fen, with his repeated demands for political democracy and freedom of the press, became one of the first targets of repression. By June 1940 all but six branches of the Sheng-huo shu-tien had been closed and about fifty of its employees had been put in prison. When the remaining branches of the company were banned in February 1941, Tsou went to Hong Kong, where he wrote for a newspaper and revived the Ta-chung sheng-huo. That May, he joined with eight other leaders of the National Salvation Association in publishing a petition entitled "Our Stand and Opinion on National Affairs." In October, he urged the formation of a "League of Chinese Democratic Political Groups" (Chung-kuo min-chu chengt'uan t'ung-meng) . The articles he wrote during this period, which were severely critical of the Kuomintang policies and practices in Chungking, later were collected and published as K'ang-chan i-lai [since the war of resistance].

Following the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, Tsou T'ao-fen fled to Kwangtung in January 1942. He planned to proceed directly to Chungking, but wartime conditions forced him to remain for three months in Kwangtung with Communist guerrillas. He then learned that he was persona non grata at Chungking. Accordingly, he remained in a village on the Kwangtung-Kwangsi border during the summer of 1942, and in September he set out for northern Kiangsu, to the regions behind Japanese lines held by Chinese Communists. He reached Shanghai in October, by which time he had developed a serious ear infection. He went on to northern Kiangsu in November, where he was welcomed by the New Fourth Army and the local people. In spite of increasing illness, he went about delivering speeches and writing articles. He seems to have been impressed by what he saw in the Communist-held regions. But when his health continued to deteriorate and he was found to have cancer of the ear, he was taken back to Shanghai in March 1943.

Though confined to a sick-bed, Tsou continued to be deeply concerned with the affairs of the nation. In September 1943 he published an "Appeal on National Affairs," advocating continuation of the united front until the achievement of victory over Japan, the immediate establishment of democratic government, and the promotion of popular education in an atmosphere of freedom. In January 1944 he began work on his last book, Huan-nan yüsheng chi [records of a troubled life]. On 2 June, in the presence of some friends and relatives, he set forth his political testament, in which he emphasized the same points as in the "Appeal on National Affairs." He also expressed three personal wishes: that his body be given to a hospital for dissection; that his body then be cremated and the ashes sent to Yenan; and that he be made a member of the Chinese Communist party. Tsou T'ao-fen died on 24 July 1944. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist party granted his dying wish for membership on 28 September.

As a journalist for almost two decades, Tsou T'ao-fen wrote copiously. In 1949 a collection of his articles written between 1925 and 1937 was edited by his friend Hu Yü-chih and published in Shanghai as T'ao-fen wu-lu [T'ao-fen's essays]. In 1959 his collected works were published in three volumes as the T'ao-fen wen-chi by the San-lien Publishers in Hong Kong.

Tsou T'ao-fen married twice. His first wife, nee Yeh, died less than two years after their marriage. He married his second wife, Shen Ts'ui-chen, in 1926. They had two boys and one girl.

Biography in Chinese

邹韬奋 原名:思润

邹韬奋(1895.11.51944.7.24),新闻记者,因主编《生活周刊》和领导救国运动而知名。他在重庆从事抗战工作,1941年因国民党新闻检查造成的困难而去香港。他曾在江苏共产党控制地区住过一些时候,1943年3月因病回邹韬奋原籍江西余江,他却生在福州,是全家六个孩子中的长子。他父亲邹贵前(译音)是一个士大夫,曾在福建盐务局职,1915年后在北京财政部工作。邹五岁时从塾师读经史典籍,1910年进福州工程学校,1912年,他父亲希望他将来做工程技术员,送他进了上海南洋大学附属小学,一年后他越级进了南洋中学,在那里读了四年书。1919年在南洋大学学了一年电机工程,决定转入圣约翰大学专修英语。

1921年,邹从圣约翰大学毕业,在沪申纺织厂、上海棉纱交易所任英文秘书,又在基督教青年会办的中学教英语。他很想从事新闻工作,1922年任黄炎培主办的中华职业教育会的编辑部主任,又在中华职业学校教英语和从事其他职业教育的指导工作。1926年10月,邹任中华职业教育会一年前创办的《生活周刊》主编,他把这一份专谈职业教育的刊物改变成为讨论社会和政治问题的论坛,增设《迺箱》一栏答复读者提出的问题。经此改革,刊物的销路大为增加,从1925年的二千八百份增加到1930年的八万份。因此,邹韬奋辞去了《时事新报》的经理和编辑的职务。1930年10月《生活周刊》社又附设了书籍杂志供应部,1932年7月,该部扩大为生活书店,三十年代末,该书店在各大城市有五十五家分店。邹以合作制形式同时经办刊物和书店,为职工谋求额外收入和利益。

1931年9月,日本攻占沈阳,邹强烈批评国民党的妥协政策,要求坚决抵抗日本,读者热烈响应他的号召,刊物销售量高达十二万份。11月,邹韬奋主持发起募捐运动,向读者募集了十二万九千元,捐献给在东北抗日的马占山。1932年又为支援十九路军进行募捐,并由职工设立伤兵医院。这一年,《生活周刊》的声望达于顶点,销售量为十五万五千份。国民党长期对它进行新闻检查。1933年1月,邹加入中国民权保障同盟,谴责国民党所采用的方式。不久,任该同盟执行委员。他的活动使他处于受报复的危险境地。他在朋友的敦促下出国。12月16日,国民党封闭了《生活周刊》。

邹离上海后,去意大利、瑞士、法国,1933年9月到伦敦,1934年2月去比利时、荷兰、德国,7月去苏联,在莫斯科大学听了暑期讲课,以后去南俄和克里米亚,又回伦敦,并于1935年5月到7月间在美国旅行,8月回到上海。邹在旅游期间,注意各国社会政治情况,记载印象寄回中国,三卷《萍纵寄语》记载了他在欧洲、俄国的见闻,《萍纵忆语》记载在美国的经历,他对苏联的印象远较西欧美国为好,他在旅行中的这种思想变化,很快在1935年11月新出版的《大众生活》周刊上反映出来。周刊的宗旨是.“完成民族解放,根除封建残余,消灭个人主义”。他继续呼吁组成抗日统一战线。

1935年12月,邹被选入上海救国会执行委员会,1936年1月,他参加了有二百多作家、新闻记者、律师参加的文化界救国会。1936年5月310,他被选入全国救国会执行委员会。他的大部分救国工作是通过《大众生活周刊》进行的。该刊销售额达到十二万份,但在1936年2月29日被国民党查封。3月,他又办了一份新周刊《永生》,6月又被查禁。于是他去了香港,于1936年6月7日创办《生活日报》,因技术上和经济上的困难,出版五十五天就停刊了。他回到上海,又办了《生活星期刊》,12月又被国艮党查封。

1936年7月,邹韬奋和救国会首领沈钧儒、陶行知发表题为《团结御侮的几个基本条件与最低要求》的呼吁书,这是向全国各党派,特别是向国民党和蒋介石发出的。它要求停止国共内战一致抗日。这个呼吁书及邹的其他声明,终于使他在1936年11月23日被捕,同时被捕的还有李公朴、王造时、沙千里、沈钧儒、章乃器、史良,他们都是全国救国会的执行委员,逮捕的罪名是“共产党活动”、“煽动日资纱厂罢工”,由于证据不足,而被交保释放。但不到二十四小时,又以“危害民国”而再次被捕,押送到上海市政府公安局,12月4日又移送到苏州高等法院受审,尽管当局极力对逮捕和审询进行得秘密,但消息仍很快传了出去,引起普遍的震惊和反感。他们诸人被称为“七君子”。

1937年4月审询开始,7月,中日战争爆发,他们七入被交保释放。邹在被拘期间,利用强加于他的闲暇写了一卷回忆录《经历》,又写了《萍综忆语》的最后几章和《读书翻译》,这些著作在1937年4月至7月间,都由生活书店出版,邹韬奋等人被释后去见蒋介石表示支持对日作战。日军占领上海时,邹和何香凝、郭沫若等入到武汉参加国民政府的工作,后又迁往重庆。邹任国民参政员,但未在政府中任职,他在参政会中就出版自由和废除检査制度提了许多提案。他通过新办刊物《抗战》又名《抵抗》鼓舞民众抗战热情。这一份刊物,原在上海出版,后迁往汉口,其后继者《全面抗战》于汉口出版,后迁往重庆。邹还多次去前线鼓舞士气。

由于国民党重新实行审查制度,邹韬奋历来都是要求政治民主出版自由的,因此成为首先遭受宜彗询一人。1940年6月,生活书店除了六家分店外,其他都被査封。五十余名职工被捕和遭到监禁。1941年2月,剩下的几家分店又被査封,邹乃去香港,为一家报纸写文章,并恢复出版《大众生活》。5月,他和救国会的其他八位首领发表题为《我们对国事的立场和观点》的呼吁书。10月,他要求组织"中国民主政团同盟”。在这期间,邹写的文章严厉批评国民党的政策和重庆的所作所为,以后收集出版为《抗战以来》。日军占领香港后,1942年1月邹逃往广东,原计划迳往重庆,但由于战时条件所迫,他在广东共产党游击区住了三个月,此时他得悉自己是重庆“不受欢迎的人”。为此,1942年夏,他就停留在两广边境的农村里。9月,他准备去苏北共产党控制的敌后地区。10月,他到了上海,当时已患有严重耳疾。11月他到了苏北,受到新四军和群众的欢迎。他不顾日益加重的病痛,继续发表演说和撰写文章,他深深为共产党领导的地区所感动。但是他的病情恶化,发现他患有耳癌,1943年3月被送回上海。

邹虽然卧病在床,仍忧虑国事。1943年9月,发表《为国事呼吁》,希望保持统一战线直至抗日胜利,要求立刻成立民主政府,在自由空气中普及教育。1944年1月,他写了他的最后一本书《患难余生记》。6月2日,他当着几个亲友的面立下了他的政治遗嘱,重申他在《为国事呼吁》中提出的三点意见.又留下了三条个入遗愿:遗体供医院解剖,遗体火化骨灰送往延安,申请加入中国共产党。1944年7月240,邹韬奋逝世,9月28日,中国共产党中央委员会批准追认邹韬奋为中共党员。

邹韬奋在将近二十年的记者生涯中,写了大量作品,1949年由胡愈之编辑在上海出版了他1925年——1937年间的文章,名为《韬奋文录》,1959年三卷本选集《韬奋文集》,由香港三联书店出版。

邹韬奋前妻叶氏,结婚后不到两年就去世了。1926年续娶沈粹缜(译音),有子两人,女一入。

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