Zhu Shaoliang

Name in Chinese
朱紹良
Name in Wade-Giles
Chu Shao-liang
Related People

Biography in English

Chu Shao-liang (1890-25 December 1963), military officer who helped extend Kuomintang control into Sinkiang by negotiating with Sheng Shih-ts'ai (q.v.) for the withdrawal of Russian influence in that province. Commander of the Eighth War Area in 1938-40, he also served as governor of Kansu in 1933-35 and 1938-40 and ofFukienin 1948-49.

Although his ancestral home was at Wuchin (Ch'angchou), Kiangsu, Chu Shao-liang was born in Foochow, Fukien, where his father was a government official. He received his early education at the military primary school in Fukien and then went to the Nanking Army Middle School. After being graduated from Nanking in 1910, Chu was selected by the government for advanced military training in Japan.

He entered the Shimbu Gakko at Tokyo in 1910 and soon joined the T'ung-meng-hui. In 1911 he returned to China, participated in the actions at Wuchang following the revolt, and served in the headquarters of Ch'en Ch'i-mei (q.v.), the republican military governor of Shanghai. In 1913 Chu took part in the socalled second revolution, which attempted to dislodge Yuan Shih-k'ai from power. After its failure, he took refuge in Japan and enlisted in the 14th Field Artillery Corps of the Japanese Army as a candidate for entry into the Shikan Gakko [military academy]. He entered the academy's artillery course in 1914 as a member of its eleventh class, which included three other Chinese students with whom Chu was to be associated in later years: Ho Yao-tsu, Ho Ying-ch'in, and Ku Cheng-lun.

After graduation in 1916, Chu Shao-liang returned to China. He became an officer in the 1st Kweichow Division, commanded by Wang Wen-hua. He was promoted to regimental commander and then to chief of staff of the division. In 1917, after Wang Wen-hua became commander in chief of the Kweichow National Pacification Army, Chu served as his chief of staff. During the period when Kweichow and Yunnan forces were stationed in Szechwan under the over-all command of T'ang Chi-yao, Chu was defense commander at Chungking. In 1920 Wang Wen-hua was assassinated, and the Kweichow-Yunnan forces were driven out of Szechwan.

After a brief period of inactivity in Shanghai, Chu went to Canton, where he became a staff officer in Sun Yat-sen's headquarters. When the Northern Expedition was launched in mid- 1926, Chu became chief of staff of the Fourth Army's 10th Division, commanded by Ch'en Ming-shu. In the disputes which began after the forces of the National Revolutionary Army reached central China, Chu supported Chiang Kai-shek. In 1928, after the successful completion of the Nationalist campaign against Peking, Chu became a member of the Military Affairs Commission and director of its military affairs bureau. Later in 1928 Chu received command of the 8th Division.

In 1929 Chiang Kai-shek assigned Chu Shaoliang and Ho Yao-tsu to consolidate control over western Hupeh in the struggle against the Kwangsi generals. The Kwangsi forces retreated from central China and then undertook a new offensive against Kwangtung in the south. In September 1929 Chu went to the southern front, commanding both his own 8th Division and the 3rd Division. However, he soon returned to central China to deal with a new threat to Chiang Kai-shek's authority in Honan. In the 1930 civil war against the northern coalition of Feng Yü-hsiang and Yen Hsi-shan (qq.v.) , Chu fought on the Lunghai front. In 1931, after the war against the northern generals ended, he was named special pacification commissioner of Kiangsi province, where the Chinese Communists then had their main territorial base. The fighting against the Communists went badly, however, and in 1932 Chu was relieved of his post. He went to Shanghai. Later that year he was recalled to duty and was appointed to command operations against the Communists in the Hunan-Hupeh-Kiangsi border area.

In July 1933 Chu Shao-liang was assigned new duties in northwest China as pacification commissioner for Kansu, Ninghsia, and Tsinghai. The same year, he was given the concurrent post of governor of Kansu province. Late in 1935, Chu was succeeded as governor of Kansu by Yu Hsueh-chung (q.v.). However, Chu retained his military responsibilities in the northwest and commanded Nationalist forces in the campaign against the Communists that pressed into northwest China. In November 1935 he was elected to membership on the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang at the Fifth National Congress. In December 1936 Chu was one of the Nationalist military officers accompanying Chiang Kai-shek when he was detained at Sian by Chang Hsuehliang (q.v.). After the Sian Incident, the National Government removed Yü Hsueh-chung from the governorship of Kansu and named Chu to that post. However, he refused the appointment and retired temporarily to Shanghai.

After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in July 1937, Chu became the director of the administrative section of the Military Affairs Commission and then served as commander in chief of the Ninth Route Army, the central force in the Shanghai sector. When the Nationalist forces were overcome by the Japanese, Chu was transferred to northwest China, where he was given command of the Eighth War Area, with headquarters at Lanchow. He also held office as governor of Kansu from 1938 to 1940. He then relinquished the Kansu governorship to his Tokyo classmate Ku Cheng-lun, but retained his military command.

While serving as senior Nationalist military commander at Lanchow, Chu Shao-liang made what was perhaps his major political contribution to the Kuomintang cause: extending Nationalist control into Sinkiang province. Formally, Sinkiang was part of the Eighth War Area, and in March 1942 Chu Shao-liang made a trip to Urumchi to begin preliminary discussions with Sheng Shih-ts'ai (q.v.). Because German armies were then driving hard across southern Russia, Sheng reconsidered his pro- Soviet alignment and proved receptive to Chu's representations. In July 1942, Chu, accompanied by Wong Wen-hao (q.v.), the minister of economic affairs in the National Government at Chungking, made another official trip to Urumchi to negotiate the formal establishment of Kuomintang authority in the province. Sheng agreed to order the expulsion from Sinkiang of Russian military, technical, and economic advisers.

The withdrawal of the Russians in 1943 paved the way for the Kuomintang to extend its influence into Sinkiang. However, because the Soviet Union had begun to inflict a series of defeats on the Germans, Sheng wished to reconsider the matter of pro-Russian alignment. Accordingly, in 1944 Chu Shao-liang again served as Chungking's special emissary to Sinkiang, and in August he was appointed acting governor of Sinkiang and was directed to remove Sheng from his entrenched position in the province. Chu made another trip to Urumchi, and, perhaps because of the superior military forces at his disposal, he persuaded Sheng Shih-ts'ai to accept the sinecure post of minister of agriculture and forestry in the National Government. Sheng finally left Urumchi aboard a special plane sent to take him to Chungking. Chu Shao-liang then turned over the provincial governorship of Sinkiang to Wu Chunghsin (q.v.) and left the province in October 1944.

In 1945 Chu Shao-liang became deputy chief of staff of the Military Affairs Commission. In 1947 he was appointed deputy director of Chiang Kai-shek's headquarters at Chungking. In 1948, he served as pacification commissioner at Chungking, with authority over the four southwestern provinces of Szechwan, Yunnan, Sikang, and Kweichow. Late in 1948 he was transferred to Fukien, where he became provincial governor and pacification commissioner.

After the general collapse of Nationalist authority on the mainland in 1949, Chu Shaoliang moved to Taiwan. For several years he held the nominal position of adviser to the President on military strategy. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at Taipei on 25 December 1963, at the age of 73. In 1917, while stationed in Kweichow, Chu Shao-liang married Hua Te-fen. They had two sons and eight daughters.

Biography in Chinese

朱绍良字:一民

朱绍良(18901963.12.25),军官,他协助国民党和盛世才谈判,促使俄国势力撤出新疆省,从而使国民党控制了该省。19381940年朱绍良任第八战区司令长官,1933—1935年和1938—1940年任甘肃省主席,1948—1949年任福建省主席。他原籍江苏武进(常州),出生在福建福州,他父亲在那里当官。早年时,他在福建初级武备学校、南京陆军中等学校上学"1910年在南京毕业后,被政府选送日本留学、学习军事。

1910年,他在东京进成城学校,不久加入同盟会。1911年回到中国,参加了武昌一带的起义,接着在上海共和革命督军陈其美司令部工作。1913年他参加了推翻袁世凯的所谓二革命。失败后避居日本,在日本陆军十四野炮营实习,准备进士官学校。1914年他进士官学校在十一班炮科学习,该班另有三名中国学生;贺燿祖、何应钦、谷正伦。
朱绍良于1916年毕业后回中国,投身贵州王文华的第一师,后升为团长、师参谋>1917年王文华为贵州靖国军总司令,朱绍良为参谋长。唐继尧指挥下的黔滇联军驻在四川时,朱绍良任重庆警备司令。:1920年王文华被刺身死,黔滇联军被逐出四川。他一度在上海无所作为,然后去广州在孙逸仙太本营任参谋。1926年北伐进军时,采绍良任陈铭柚的第四军十师参谋长。国民革命军到華申后,」内駆纷争,朱绍良站在蒋介石这一边»1928年,国民革命军征伐北京胜利完成后,朱绍良当了童事委员会萎员和军务局周长。1928年晚些时候他接受了统帅第八师的任务。

1929年,在与广西军阀的战斗中,蒋介石派朱绍良、赞燿祖巩固嘯北西部的控制。桂军撤出华中地区,向南袭击广东]1929年9月,朱绍良去酋方前线,指挥他的第八师和第三师。不久又回到华中,因为蒋介石的政校在諭南受到新的威胁。1930年,为对付北方冯全祥、阎锡山的联盟,发生内战;朱绍食龙陇海:路前线作战。1931年对北方军阀的内战结束后,朱绍良被任命为江西绥靖主任,那时,江西有中国共产党入的主要根据勉。对付共产:党的战争进行很不得力,所以,朱绍良于1932年被解职,他去上海。同年后期,朱绍良被召回,命指挥部队进攻:湘「鄂、赣边枚曲兵产党人。

1933年7月,朱绍良为西北的甘肃、孕夏、青海三省的绥靖主注。同年,他还兼任甘肃香主席的职务。1935年于学点继朱绍良为甘肃習主席,但是西比的军事实权,仍由朱绍良掌握,他指挥国民军和向西北进迫的共产党军队作战。1935年11月国民党第五次全国代表头会上,朱绍良当逐为中央执行萎贵会委员. 1936年12月,蒋介右在西安被张学良務留时,朱绍良嵬陪隨靖介石一起的国民党军官之一。西安事变后,国民政府免去于学忠甘肃省主席职务,由朱绍良繼任,但他耒就任而去上海曹居。

1937年7月,中日战争爆发后,朱绍良任军事委员会办公厅主任,以及驻上海中央军第九路军总指挥。国民党军在上海被白荤击衣后,朱绍良调往西北,任第八战区司令长官,设司部于兰州,193A1940年他兼任甘肃省圭席,接着他的省政府主席的职务由他在日本时的同学公;£伦接密他肖己专掌军权。朱绍良龛兰州的国民党最高军事要员,他在政咅上为国民党作宙的重要贡献是把国民磯的势力扩大到新疆省。新疆名义上是隶属于第八战反的:1942年:3月,他去乌鲁木齐和盛世才谈判。当时德军正向俄国南部猛进,盛拖才重新考虑他的亲苏政策,认为朱绍良的建议是可以接受的,1942年7月,朱绍良由重庆国民政府经济部长翁文颜陪同,再次前往乌鲁木齐商谈在新疆确立国民党的权力,盛世才同意下令遺返在新疆的俄国军事、技术、经济顾问。

1943年俄国人撤走,为国民党在新疆扩展势力创造了条件.但是,当余联屡次击败减军时,盛世才准备重新考虑他的亲俄政策了。据此,于1944年朱绍良以重庆轉使的身份又去疆。8月,朱绍良任新疆省代主席,受咨消除盛世才在新疆的固有地位。朱绍良再一次去新疆,由于他握有绝旁优势的兵力,他终于劝盛世才接受了国民政府农林部长的空衔。盛世才趁坐机,备芥乌鲁木齐赴童庆。随后,朱绍良把新疆省政府主腐的职务移交给吴忠信,1944年10月他离开新疆。

1945年,朱绍良任军事委员会副参谋总长,1947年任蒋介石重庆行营副主任,1948年任重庆绥备主任,统管四川、云南、西康、赍州西南四省。1948年底调往福建,隹省主席兼绥靖主任。1940年国民政府在大雇全部崩溃后,耒细良去苔湾;几举来,一直担任总统军事顾问的空衔:1963年12月25日因脑溢血死于台北,柱笙七十三岁。1917年,当棗绍良驻在贵州时,和华德芬结赠。有两入儿子、八个女儿。

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