Ch'in Te-ch'un (1893-7 September 1963), military leader associated with Feng Yü-hsiang before 1930, served under Sung Che-yuan, becoming governor of Chahar, mayor of Peking, and deputy commander of the Twenty-ninth Army. He led his army in the first military action of the Sino-Japanese war. He held senior military posts in the National Government in China and in Taiwan.
Yishui, Shantung, was the birthplace of Ch'in Te-ch'un. He studied at the Shantung military elementary school and then enrolled at Paoting Military Academy. He was graduated from the infantry course with the second class in 1916. He was assigned to the Shantung 5th Division for field training, after which he held command and staff posts in the Shensi army. He entered Peking Staff College in 1920 and was graduated with the sixth class of that institution in 1922. Ch'in then was sent to Honan, where Feng Yü-hsiang (q. v.) served briefly as military governor, and was assigned as chief of staff of the eastern Honan defense headquarters.
Ch'in Te-ch'un thus became associated with the Feng Yü-hsiang military organization in north China. The deterioration of relations between Feng Yü-hsiang and Wu P'ei-fu (q.v. ), who was then the leading military figure of the Chihli clique, led to conflict in 1924. In the autumn of that year, when the second Chihli-Fengtien war broke out, Feng, who was assigned to the Jehol front, suddenly led his men back to Peking and occupied the capital. Immediately after that coup and the downfall of Wu P'ei-fu, Feng Yü-hsiang assumed the post of commander in chief of the Kuominchün, or National Army. Ch'in Te-ch'un was assigned as chief of staff of the 24th Division under Feng. In 1925 he was promoted to command the 47th Infantry Brigade of that division. In 1926 he became commander of the 27th Division and, soon thereafter, commander of the 14th Division. However, Feng Yii-hsiang's Kuominchün was forced out of north China, and he himself left China on a trip to the Soviet Union, only to return in September 1926 and announce his support for the Nationalist forces then advancing from south China.
Feng Yü-hsiang then began to reorganize his scattered troops into a force which could cooperate effectively with the National Revolutionary Army under Chiang Kai-shek. In the spring of 1927, when Feng's forces moved from Shensi into Honan to seize effective control of that province, Ch'in Te-ch'un became commander of the 1st Division of Feng's army and participated in the Honan fighting. He later was made commander of the 23rd Division of Feng's Northwest Army and deputy commander of the Second Area Army. During 1927 Feng's political maneuvers tipped the scale in the struggle between Chiang Kai-shek and the Wuhan government, and his forces nominally became part of the reorganized Nationalist military establishment. With the resumption in 1928 of the second stage of the Northern Expedition, aimed at Chang Tso-lin (q.v.), who held power at Peking, Ch'in Te-ch'un commanded the Fourteenth Army of Feng Yü-hsiang's Second Croup Army. When the National Government was established at Nanking in October of that year, Feng Yü-hsiang and his lieutenant Lu Chung-lin (q.v. ) became, respectively, minister and vice minister of war. The future seemed bright for Kuominchün officers, since Feng retained regional power through his control of Honan, Shensi, Kansu, and part of Shantung.
The tension between National Government authorities at Nanking and Feng Yü-hsiang, soon became evident. In 1930 Feng Yü-hsiang lost the power struggle with Nanking, and the units of the Kuominchün were reorganized into the National Government forces. Ch'in Te-ch'un, like most of Feng's senior commanders, was relieved of his posts. He went into temporary retirement. The 1930 conflict between Nanking and the northern coalition in effect had been decided through the inaction of Chang Hsueh-liang (q.v. ), the Young Marshal of Manchuria, who finally sided with the central government. Ch'in Te-ch'un allied himself with Chang Hsueh-liang, who was then based at Peiping, and became a military counselor in his headquarters. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria beginning in September 1931, however, led to a swift decline in the Young Marshal's power. Ch'in Te-ch'un participated in battles against the Japanese on the Great Wall front at the beginning of 1933. However, Chang Hsueh-liang was forced to turnover control ofhis armed forces to Chiang Kai-shek in March of that year. Chiang's military lieutenant Ho Ying-ch'in (q. v.), was then given full authority in north China. Ch'in Te-ch'un then became commander in chief of the Third Army Corps and a member of the Peiping branch military council headed by Ho Ying-ch'in. Later in 1933 he was also made deputy commander of the Twenty-ninth Army under Sung Che-yuan (q.v. ) and a member of the provincial government of Chahar province, which was then under Sung's direct jurisdiction.
In mid-1935, when Sung Che-yuan was moved to Peiping with his Twenty-ninth Army to attempt to hold north China in the face of the Japanese political advance, Ch'in Te-ch'un succeeded him as governor of Chahar, also taking the post of commissioner for civil affairs in that province. Later that year Ch'in was moved to Peiping to become mayor and a member of the Hopei-Chahar political council, which was headed by Sung. He was also elected to membership on the Central Supervisory Committee of the Kuomintang at its Fifth Congress in November 1935.
The Japanese situation in north China became increasingly tense after the implications of the commitments made by Chiang Kai-shek at Sian in December 1936 became clear. In 1937 Ch'in Te-ch' un was given the post of deputy commander of the Twenty-ninth Army of Sung Che-yuan. Caught between pressure from the Japanese and a corresponding resistance from Nanking to any political concessions, Sung Che-yuan retired to his native Shantung, leaving Ch'in Te-ch' un in charge of the north China situation. When the Japanese on 7 July 1937 demanded entry into the small town of Wanp'ing near Peiping to search for a soldier who allegedly had disappeared, it was Ch'in 's order that led to resistance by the Chinese regiment of the Twenty-ninth Army. Thus, the Sino-Japanese war began.
Both the Twenty-ninth Arm y and Sun g Che-yuan's organization were destroyed during the
early stage of the conflict. Having lost his troops, Ch'in Te-ch'un was assigned to staff positions throughout the war. He became deputy director general of courts martial in 1940 and vice minister of military conscription in 1941, holding that post until 1945.
After the Japanese surrender and the resumption of civil war against the Communists in 1946, Ch'in Te-ch'un was named vice minister of national defense in the National Government, with the rank of lieutenant general. Although his erstwhile chief Feng Yü-hsiang moved into a position of open opposition to Chiang Kai-shek in the late l 940's, Ch'in remained with the National Government at Nanking; he was reappointed vice minister of national defense in May 1948 after the election of Chiang Kai-shek as President. In 1948 Ch'in was named governor of his native Shantung province and mayor of Tsingtao, but both the province and the city were occupied by the Communists in 1949. Ch'in Te-ch'un then moved to Taiwan, where he was rewarded with the appropriate sinecure posts conventionally allotted to retired Nationalist generals. He died in Taipei of lung cancer in September 1963.
秦德纯 (1893—1963.9.7) , 1930年前，是冯玉祥系的军事将领，属宋哲元 部下，任察'哈尔省主席、北京市长、二十九军副军长，他率部队参加了中日战 争爆发时的璋一次军事行动。他在南京国民政府和台湾担任高级军职。
秦德纯生在山东沂水。先在山东武备学堂学习，后进保定军官学校。1916 年第二期步兵科毕业，派往山东第五师见习，以后在陕西军中担任指挥和参谋 职务。1920年进北京参谋学校，1922年第六期毕业后去河南。河南督军冯玉祥 任他为豫东防卫参谋长。
此后，秦德纯就参加了冯玉祥在华北的军事组织。冯玉祥和直系军事首领吴 佩孚的关系恶化，引起1924年的冲突。同年秋天，第二次直奉战起，冯玉祥从 热河前线突然率军回师北京并加以占领。经此事变，吴佩孚倒台，冯玉祥任国 民军总司令，秦德纯在冯手下任二十四师参谋长。1925年，升任该师四十七步 兵旅旅长，1926年任二十七师师长，不久，又改任十四师师长。后来，冯玉祥 的国民军被迫撤出华北，冯玉祥去苏联，1926年9月回国，宣布支持自南方北 上的国民革命军。
于是，冯玉祥着手重组其残部成军，以便与蒋介石领导下的国民革命军进 行有效的合作。1927年春，冯玉祥部由陕西进入河南，为了有效的控制该省。当 时秦德纯任冯军第一师师长。参加河南之战，后又任冯玉祥西北军二十三师师 长、第二集团军副军长，1927年，在宁汉斗争中，冯在政治上起了平衡作用， 他的部队在名义上成为改组了的国民革命军的一部分。1928年，以在北京掌权 的张作霖为目标的第二阶段北伐开始，秦德纯任冯玉祥第二集团军第十四军军 长。10月，国民政府在南京成立，冯玉祥及其部属鹿钟麟分别当上了陆军部正 副部长。由于冯玉祥握有地方势力，控制了河南、陕西、甘肃及山东的一部份 地区，因此国民军军官的前景看来颇有希望。
南京当局和冯玉祥的关系开始紧张，1930年，冯的国民军改编为国民政府 的军队，冯失去了与南京竞夺的力量。秦德纯同冯玉祥的大部分亲信将领一样 被解除了职位，暂时退休。1930年南京和北方军阀的争夺中，张学良态度消 极，但最后还是投向了中央政府。秦德纯和北平的张学良有联系，当上了张学 良司令部的参议，1931年9月，日军开始侵占满洲，使张学良顿然失势。1933 年初秦德纯参加了在长城一线抗击日军的战斗。当年3月，张学良被迫把全部 军权交给蒋介石，蒋介石的军事助手何应钦当时拥有华北的最高权位。秦德纯 任第三军团总司令兼军事委员会北平分会委员，军委会北平分会是由何应钦领导的。1933年底，他在宋哲元手下任二十九军副军长、:察哈尔省政府委员，当 时该省在宋哲元的直接管辖范围之内。
1935年中，宋哲元率二十九军进北平，以对付日本对华北的政治攻势，秦 德纯继宋哲元任察哈尔省主席并兼任该省民政厅长。同年底，秦德纯到北平任 市长并铐以宋哲元为首的冀察政务委员会委员。在1935年11月召开的国民党第 五次全国代表大会上，他当选为中央监察委员会委员。
1936年12月，蒋介石在西安所作承诺付之实现后，日本在华北的形势日趋 紧张。1937年秦德纯担任宋哲元二十九军副军长。一方面有日本的压力，另一方 面又有来自南京反对任何政治让步的指示，宋哲元夹在中间，终于退休回山东 老家，由秦德纯处理华北事务。1937年7月7日，日军借口追査一失踪士兵要 求进入北平附近的一个小城镇宛平，秦德纯下令二十九军进行抵抗。这样，爆 发了中日战争。
战争一开始，宋哲元的二十九军及其各机构都被摧毁，秦德纯再没有军队 To他在整个战争肘期，只担任了一些参谋的职务。1940年任军事法庭副庭 长，1941年任军令部次长，直到1945年。
日本投降后，1946年开始了对共产党的内战，秦德纯就任国民政府国防部 中将衔次长。四十年代后期，他的老上司冯玉祥巳公开反对蒋介石，但秦德纯 仍留在南京国民政府。1948年5月2蒋介石当选为总统后，秦德纯再度被任命 为国防部次长。1948年，秦德纯任山东省主席、青岛市市长，而在1949年，共 产党占领了山东和青岛。于是秦德纯去台湾，他像其他退职的国民党军人一样 领取乾薪而巳。1963年9月，死于肺癌。